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ch11 - AbnormalPsychology Ch11:EatingDisorders Overview...

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Abnormal Psychology Ch 11: Eating Disorders
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Overview Anorexia Nervosa The Clinical Picture Medical Problems Bulimia Nervosa Binges Compensatory Behaviors Bulimia versus Anorexia What causes eating disorders? Psychodynamic Cognitive Mood Disorders Biological Societal Pressures Family Environment Multicultural: Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences Treatment Anorexia Bulimia
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Anorexia Nervosa: Overview DSM: Refusal to maintain body weight above a minimally normal weight for age and height Intense fear of gaining weight, even though underweight Disturbed body perception, undue influence of weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low weight In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (i.e., no menstruation)
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Anorexia Nervosa: Overview (cont’d) Restricting-type anorexia nervosa versus binge- eating / purging-type anorexia nervosa Gender 90-95% of cases = female Peak age of onset 14-18 years old More common in Western countries (.5-2% of all females) On the rise in North America, Europe, and Japan Initiation Begins after person who is slightly overweight (or normal) has been on a diet… it escalates into anorexia when triggered by stressful event Recovery Majority, but 2-6% become seriously ill and die
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Anorexia Nervosa The Clinical Picture Medical Problems
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Anorexia: Clinical Picture Key goal: thinness Motivation: FEAR (of becoming obese, giving into desire to eat, losing control over size / shape of body) PREOCCUPATION WITH FOOD Spend considerable time thinking, reading about, and planning their limited meals; dream of food / eating Most likely due to starvation (i.e., starvation study with non- anorexics) Distorted thinking (i.e., cognition) Low opinion of body shape, consider self unattractive, overestimate actual proportions Test: Photo of self with adjustable lens Beliefs and attitudes: “I can avoid guilt by not eating”; perfectionists Disorders Low self-esteem, depression, anxiety (esp. OCD), insomnia, substance abuse
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Anorexia: Medical Problems Amenorrhea absence of menstrual cycles Lowered body temperature, blood pressure Body swelling Reduced bone mineral density Slower heart rate Metabolic / electrolyte imbalances Can lead to death via heart failure or circulatory collapse Dry, rough, cracked skin, nails brittle Hands and feet cold / blue Loss of scalp hair; lanugo on trunk, extremities, face
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Bulimia Nervosa: Overview “binge-purge syndrome” Binge : usually an hour; eat more food than most during that time Compensate : purge (“purging- type bulmia”) or fasting / frantic exercise (“nonpurging-type bulimia”) DSM: 1) Recurrent episodes of binge (over-) eating 2) Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors in order to prevent weight gain 3) Symptoms continuing, on average, at least twice a week for 3 months 4) Undue influence of weight or shape on self-evaluation
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