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ch12_alcohol - AbnormalPsychology Ch12:SubstanceAbuse...

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Abnormal Psychology Ch 12: Substance Abuse Alcohol
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Overview Depressants Stimulants Combination of Substances Causes: Perspectives Treatment: Perspectives
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What is a “drug”? Drug : any substance other than food that affects our bodies or minds We now say “substance” instead of “drug” To take into account things like alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine Ingestion sets of a series of biochemical events that disturb normal operation of brain and body Short - versus Long-term changes in behavior Frequent, regular ingestion produces changes in self and surrounding (socially) Substance abuse – excessive reliance on drug; damages life, relationships, etc. Substance dependence – addiction ( tolerance , withdrawal )
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DSM checklist Substance Abuse Substance Dependence A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment or distress At least one of the following features occurs within 1 yr Recurrent substance abuse, interference with responsibilities “ in physically hazardous situations Legal problems Continues despite increasing social problems A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment or distress At least 3 of the following: Tolerance Withdrawal Larger amts of substance over longer period of time than intended Persistent desire for substance, failed efforts to control use Considerable time spent trying to obtain, use, or recover Substance use in place of important activities Continues despite persistent physical / psych problems
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Depressants Slow the activity of the central nervous system; reduce tension and inhibitions; impaired judgment, motor activity, concentration 3 predominant groups: Alcohol Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs Opioids
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Alcohol Binge-drinking: 5+ drinks on a single occasion Prevalence has increased by 35% in past decade 81% are men (and they are heavier drinkers in general) Ethyl alcohol Absorbed into blood via lining of stomach/intestine Carried to central nervous system.. Depressed functioning by binding to neurons that normally receive GABA (inhibitory message) First, relaxation (confident, happy, etc.) As more is consumed, progresses to speech and memory errors, lack of coordination, poor vision, problem-solving ability Effect varies as a function of ethyl concentration in blood / weight of drinker Worse for women due to shortage of stomach enzymes Relaxation (concentration: .06); intoxication (.09); death (.55) Metabolized by liver (takes time; cannot be helped via coffee, splashing cold water on face, etc.)
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Alcohol: STATS and Trends Well, it’s legal, but one of the most dangerous substances 10% of elementary school students ~45% of high school seniors drink each month Alcoholism Long-term pattern of abuse / dependence (6.6% of world’s population) Men: 2x women White American and Hispanic males: during young adulthood; African-American males: late middle age; Native Americans highest in general; Asians: low
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