Lecture 1 - Concept question(s) for bioproducts Click to...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 8/9/11 Concept question(s) for bioproducts
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PENGUIN QUESTION 1 – building block molecules There is a basic simplicity in the structure of biological macromolecules: they are made of building block molecules of a few different kinds, strung together in chains* of between 101 and 104 units. Unscramble the table below to give the correct rows (leave the LAST column untouched Building block molecules (BB) BB structural elements Number of different kinds of BB’s macromolecule Sugars Polypeptide Amino acids 8 Lipid Nucleotides Amino group, carboxyl group, “R” (sidechain) group 20 Nucleic acid Fatty acids, glycerol*, phosphate Nitrogenous organic base, 5- carbon sugar, phosphate Polysaccharide
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Building block molecules (BB) BB structural elements Number of different kinds of BB’s macromolecule Amino acids Amino group, carboxyl group, “R” (sidechain) group 20 (alanine, aginine,…, tryptophan, tyrosine) Polypeptide Fatty acids, glycerols, phosphates Lipid Nucleotides Nitrogenous organic base, 5- carbon sugar, phosphate 8 (4 deoxyribonucleotides + 4 ribonucleotides) Nucleic acid Sugars (various aldose and ketose monosaccharide s) Polysaccharide Ans to PQ 1 (correct arrangement w addtl
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8/9/11 CONCEPT QUESTION 2 – Many commercial amino acids (glutamic acid, lysine, trytophan, not aspartic acid), are made by fermentation rather than by chemical synthesis. What is the major advantage for the bioprocess route? A ( red ): Bioprocesses can begin with lower cost raw materials, such as ammonia and glucose. B ( yellow ): Bioprocesses can more efficiently do the difficult transamination step through enzymes.
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8/9/11 Answer to CQ2 C ( green ): All the alpha amino acids have a chiral center. Bioprocesses can selectively make the “natural” L C NH 2 H COOH R C NH 2 R COOH H
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8/9/11 CONCEPT QUESTION 2 – robustness of nucleic acids Which biomolecule can typically keep its activity over wider ranges of pH and temperature, and more easily recover activity after losing its structure (due to breaking its hydrogen bonds)? A ( red ): Nucleic acids, because they are smaller and more compact than proteins B ( yellow ): Proteins, because the peptide bond is stronger than the phosphate ester bond in a nucleic
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8/9/11 Answer to CQ2 C ( green ): Nucleic acids, because its network of hydrogen bonds in its base pairs is stronger and it is structurally less complex – i.e. it is basically a linear molecule. Gene synthesis is now automated, which
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8/9/11 CONTINUE
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8/9/11 Concept question 3 In 1957 Anfinsen did a classic experiment with ribonuclease A, in which he chemically reduced and denatured the enzyme in urea, as shown by the cartoon below. He then split the solution in half. He dialyzed one to remove the urea then slowly oxidized it to reform the disulfide bonds (prep 1). He oxidized the other in the presence of urea and then dialyzed away the urea ( prep 2).
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This note was uploaded on 08/09/2011 for the course CHEN 4820 at Colorado.

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Lecture 1 - Concept question(s) for bioproducts Click to...

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