01+Crystal+Structure+_+Electrical+Conduction

01+Crystal+Structure+_+Electrical+Conduction -...

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EECS 320 Crystal Structure
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Material Requirements What can we use? Electrical conduction Range of conducting to insulating Solid state
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Types of solids Crystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Formed by crystalline “grains” No long-range order Orderly 3D array Mostly interested in crystalline materials
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Types of solids: Examples IBM, 2002
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Common Semiconductors
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Crystal Structure Lattice Periodic arrangement of atoms in a crystal Unit cell Small volume of crystal that may be used to reproduce the entire crystal without leaving voids Simple cubic lattice constant a Primitive unit cell Smallest unit cell that describes the crystal Body centered cubic (BCC) Lattice constant is a material parameter
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Semiconductor Crystal Structure Diamond Zinc Blende (Si, Ge) (GaAs, InP, AlSb, …) 0 , 2 , 2 a a 4 , 4 , 4 a a a Ga As () 0 , 0 , 0
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Semiconductor Wafers Ingot
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Semiconductor Wafers Atomic arrangement not symmetric in all directions Chemical and electronic properties will depend on atomic arrangement Need a method of specifying atomic arrangement or orientation (what surface are you growing on?) Different crystalline faces of silicon
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Miller Indices Semiconductor devices fabricated on crystal surface – need method of describing crystalline direction/planes plane ( h k l ) h k l are Miller indices defining the plane or direction direction [ h k l ]
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01+Crystal+Structure+_+Electrical+Conduction -...

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