2-2-11 Plants Overview - Today Plant Overview...

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Plant Overview 1 Today Evolu+on of plants Challenges of transi+on from water to land Basic Plant Body organs +ssue types cell types Transi+on to transport (next lecture) 2 The photosynthe+c descendants are a monophyle+c group containing red algae, “green algae” and plants > 1 billion years ago, heterotrophic eukaryote acquired cyanobacteria symbiont Chlorophytes Charophyceans Red algae Green algae Land plants Excavata Chromalveolata Rhizaria ArchaeplasBda Unikonta 3 ANCESTRAL ALGA Red algae Chlorophytes Charophytes Embryophytes Plantae Charophytes are the closest relaBves of plants GREEN ALGAE Is the group “GREEN ALGAE” a monoplyleBc clade? 4 Evidence? Shared derived characters for charophytes and plants (embryophytes) Gene+c evidence: Nuclear and chloroplast genomes Morphological and biochemical traits speciFc kind of cellulose synthesis structure for cell wall synthesis Some unique enzymes Etc. 2 aquatic charophyte species, closest living relatives of plants -Chara species (on left) -Coleochaete species (on right) 5 ANCESTRAL ALGA Red algae Chlorophytes Charophytes Embryophytes Q1? Where would these traits for charophytes and plants go on this phylogeny (1‐5)? 1 3 2 5 4 6
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Shared derived characters for 4 major groups of plants Alterna+on of genera+ons for reproduc+on, i.e. has both mul+cellular haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) forms Apical meristems (primary growth) Protec+on of gametes within mul+cellular archegonia and antheridia
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2-2-11 Plants Overview - Today Plant Overview...

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