{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Challenge Handout

Challenge Handout - Challenges to Human Survival on Earth I...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 1 Challenges to Human Survival on Earth What we need: Open eyes and open mind Can-do attitude Not to give in to “common excuses” Come up with sustainable solutions “If a path to the better there be, it begins with a full look at the worst." --Thomas Hardy I. What are the Challenges ? 2 Traditional business interests of big companies Maximize profit Based on short- term assessment, e.g. Quarterly stock reports A few benefit Wall street: Focus shift from generating value for economy to generating wealth (money) for individuals Environment Limited resources Limits to growth Ecosystems view Ensure long-term survival Within limits of carrying capacity Long-term view Everyone benefits Two different Mindsets ? What are the current challenges? How can we solve this conflict? What are the possible solutions? Ecological Economics What we need to consider 3 2. Chemical cycling (read) Transporting nutrients (e.g. harvesting, fertilizers) Add new chemicals (some are toxins) Releasing chemicals into atmosphere (e.g. CO2, acids, fluorocarbons, etc) Exhausting non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) 3. Energy flow (e.g. mining of fossil fuels and chemical release) Challenge: Human Disturbance Human activity is disrupting ecosystems throughout the biosphere at 3 levels: Humans Baleen whales Crab-eater seals Birds Fishes Squids Leopard seals Elephant seals Smaller toothed whales Sperm whales Carnivorous plankton Euphausids (krill) Copepods Phyto- plankton 1. Trophic structure of food webs (read) (e.g. agriculture, deforestation, land- development, overfishing) 4 some heat is reflected back by atmosphere: Greenhouse effect Energy Flow: Light enters and leaves as heat Heat Ozone Layer (keeps most of harmful UV rays from getting through) Light ~1% of light that reaches autotrophs is used for photosynthesis produce ~ 170 billion tons of organic material per year Energy flow disruptions Release of chemicals (e.g. CFC: chlorofluorocarbons) causes the depletion of the Ozone layer high up in the atmosphere This causes an increase in UV radiation onto the Earth surface Deplete ozone layer See global warming animation for details Energy flow disruptions Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone 6 Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone Life on Earth is protected from the damaging effects of UV radiation by a protective layer of ozone molecules present in the atmosphere Satellite studies of the atmosphere suggest that the ozone layer has been gradually thinning since 1975: holes above the Artic and NA Energy flow disruptions (a) October 1979 (b) October 2000
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 7 Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone Life on Earth is protected from the damaging effects of UV radiation by a protective layer of ozone molecules present in the atmosphere Satellite studies of the atmosphere suggest that the ozone layer has been gradually thinning since 1975 Energy flow disruptions (a) October 1979 (b) October 2000 8 Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone More UVB rays get through causing skin cancer 6 Ozone layer thickness (Dobson units)
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern