Ecosys F2009 handout

Ecosys F2009 handout - L e v e ls o f In te r a c tio n s E...

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1 Levels of Interactions 1. Energy flows through an ecosystem, entering as light and exiting as heat Figure 54.2 Microorganisms and other detritivores Detritus Primary producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Heat Sun Key Chemical cycling Energy flow Energy flux Energy: Spectral distribution of sunlight at Earth’s surface
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2 Part of the incoming sunlight is reflected as heat, warming up the Earth surface. Energy flux some heat is reflected back by atmosphere: Greenhouse effect Energy Flow: Light enters and leaves as heat Heat Ozone Layer (keeps most of harmful UV rays from getting through) Light ~1% of light that reaches autotrophs is used for photosynthesis produce ~ 170 bil ion tons of organic material per year This greenhouse effect generates temperatures that are suitable for life Energy flux Descending dry air absorbs moisture Ascending moist air releases moisture Descending dry air absorbs moisture 30 ° 23.5 0 ° Arid zone Tropics Arid zone 60 ° N 30 ° N 0 ° (equator) 30 ° S 60 ° S GLOBAL AIR CIRCULATION AND PRECIPITATION PATTERNS Play major parts in determining rainfall and the Earth’s climate patterns Figure 50.10 x x x Georgia Energy flux
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3 Sun + water = climate has a great impact on the distribution of ecosystems on Earth Figure 50.18 Desert Temperate grassland Tropical forest Temperate broadleaf forest Coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annual mean precipitation (cm) Annual mean temperature (ºC) 100 200 300 400 30 15 0 15 Energy flux Figure 50.24 The distribution of major terrestrial biomes Energy flux Forests Smoky Mountain Forest (Temperate) Tropical Rain Forest Temperate Forest
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4 High Desert Prairie Savannah Desert Marsh Georgia’s position on earth • Latitude 30-35 N Our position means that we experience winter in December, January and February, and summer in June, July and August, with transitional seasons in between, due to the sun’s position in the sky relative to earth. Energy flux
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Ecosys F2009 handout - L e v e ls o f In te r a c tio n s E...

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