Research Article Draft 1

Research Article Draft 1 - Effects of different pH levels...

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Effects of different pH levels on the locomotion and heart rate of Daphnia Pinal Patel
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Introduction Daphnia are small crustaceans that are between 0.2 and 5.0 mm in length. They are commonly known as “water fleas” because their swimming with alternating, jerky motion. Daphnia are free swimmers; they use pair of antennas to swim through the water. They are surrounded by taco-shaped covering that is transparent (Figure 1). Because of their transparent body, it is easier to examine the internal organs of the body, for example, the heart. This allows monitoring heart rate of individual Daphnia that could be observed with a microscope. They mostly found in the benthos but also found in the water column of the mostly freshwater, moderately acidic, large bodies of water such as lakes and swamps. They eat algae, and in result, serve as an energy source for larger predators such as fish or other zooplankton. They capture algae, such as Volvox and Chlamydomonas with their legs, which also serve as gills, helping them breathe oxygen from the water. Water species act to certain external changes that were detected by internal condition. Daphnia is considered one of the indicator species that act upon to
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certain pollutants in the water (U.S. Environ.). There are many lakes or rivers that are being polluted by human being that results in polluted water with different chemicals mixed with it. Since they are very sensitive to disturbances of their environment found in fresh water, they are used in many industrial areas. These disturbances can affect the survival of Daphnia when the acidity level varies. In order to understand how these changes will affect the ecosystems of these
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