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Research Article Draft 2

Research Article Draft 2 - E ffects of Acidified and...

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Effects of Acidified and Basified Environment on the Locomotion and Heart rate of Daphnia Pinal Patel Introduction Residential, commercial, and industrial wastes being poured into the rivers and oceans causes water pollution. Acidification in freshwater is stressor that affects zooplankton organisms in the river ecosystem (Weber and Pirow, 2009). Water pollution affects the surrounding plants, and organisms living in the water. It is damaging individual species and populations by releasing directly or indirectly organic and inorganic substances. These contaminants may include detergents, insecticides, herbicides, chemicals from industrial discharge, fertilizers from residential, commercial, and agricultural use, and run-offs. These things are being discharge from daily use, everyday life. Water pollution is sometimes dangerous to small water species, especially if they are easily disturbed by pollution like Daphnia. Daphnia are more responsive and alarm setting as their early warning to pollution (Gerhardt, 2005). Daphnia are small crustaceans that are between 0.2 and 5.0 mm in length (Clare). They are commonly known as “water fleas” because their swimming with alternating, jerky motion (Clare). Daphnia are free swimmers; they use pair of antennas to swim through the water. They are surrounded by taco-shaped covering that is transparent. Because of their transparent body, it is easier to examine the internal organs of the body, for example, the heart. This allows
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monitoring heart rate of individual Daphnia that could be observed with a microscope. They mostly found in the benthos but also found in the water column of the mostly freshwater, moderately acidic, large bodies of water such as lakes and swamps. They eat algae, and in result, serve as an energy source for larger predators such as fish or other zooplankton. They capture algae, such as Volvox and Chlamydomonas with their legs, which also serve as gills, helping them breathe oxygen from the water. When Daphnia eat moving through body of water, they often eat contaminants and pathogenic bacteria that go directly to their alimentary canal and can damage their tissues (Teplova et al., 2010). Water species act to certain external changes that were detected by internal condition. Daphnia is considered one of the indicator species that act upon to certain pollutants in the water (U.S. Environ.). Daphnia as one of the test organisms is used for toxicity based on immobilization and specially on swimming activity, which highly recommended for toxicity monitoring (Gerhardt, 2005). There are many lakes or rivers that are being polluted by human being that results in polluted water with different chemicals mixed with it. Since they are very sensitive to disturbances of their environment found in fresh water, they are used in many industrial areas.
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