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Research Article Final Draft

Research Article Final Draft - Effects of Acidified and...

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age Locomotion of Daphnia over 2 minutes at different pHs of water. age Heart rate of Daphnia over 30 seconds at different pHs of water Effects of Acidified and Basified Environment on the Locomotion and Heart rate of Daphnia Pinal Patel Introduction Residential, commercial, and industrial wastes are being poured into the rivers and oceans cause water pollution. Water pollution affects the surrounding plants and living organisms in the water. Water pollution damages individual species and populations by releasing direct or indirect organic and inorganic substances. These contaminants may include detergents, insecticides, herbicides, chemicals, fertilizers, and run-offs which are being discharged from daily use of everyday life. These discharge causes acidification or basification in freshwater. Acidification is the process of becoming acid and in contrast, basification is the process of becoming basic. For example, when Nitrogen dioxide reacts with water, it produces Nitric Acid and in contrast when ammonia reacts with water, it produces ammonium hydroxide. Acidification in the freshwater is the stressor that affects zooplankton organisms in the river ecosystem (Weber and Pirow, 2009). Water pollution is sometimes dangerous to small water species such as Daphnia. Daphnia are mostly found in the benthos but it is also found in the water column of the mostly freshwater, moderately acidic; large bodies of water such as lakes and swamps. Daphnia are more responsive and act as an early warning to the water pollution (Gerhardt, 2005). Daphnia are small crustaceans with transparent body (Clare). The physiological information that can be obtained through transparent body structure provides a great advantage
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in environmental studies (Weber and Pirow, 2009). Because of their transparent body, it is easier to examine the internal organs of the body such as the heart. We can easily monitor the heart rate of individual Daphnia with a microscope. When Daphnia move through body of water, they often eat contaminants and pathogenic bacteria that go directly into their alimentary canal and can damage their tissues (Teplova et al., 2010). Daphnia is considered one of the indicator species that act upon to certain pollutants in the water (U.S. Environ.). Daphnia as one of the test organisms is used for toxicity based on immobilization and specially on swimming activity, which highly recommended for toxicity monitoring (Gerhardt, 2005). There are many lakes and rivers that are being polluted by human activities results in the polluted water with different chemicals mixed with water.
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