toxicity - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 27,...

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2159 Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 27, No. 10, pp. 2159–2168, 2008 q 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA 0730-7268/08 $12.00 1 .00 TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONIC ACID AND PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID ON FRESHWATER MACROINVERTEBRATES ( DAPHNIA MAGNA AND MOINA MACROCOPA ) AND FISH ( ORYZIAS LATIPES ) K YUNGHEE JI,† YOUNGHEE KIM,† SORIN OH,‡ BYEONGWOO AHN,§ HYUNYE JO,§ and KYUNGHO CHOI*† †School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799, Korea ‡National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 404-170, Korea §College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea ( Received 29 September 2007; Accepted 3 April 2008) Abstract —Because of their global distribution, persistence, and tendency to bioaccumulate, concerns about per±uorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and per±uorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are growing. We determined the toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in several freshwater organisms, including two cladocerans, Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa , and the teleost Oryzias latipes . In general, PFOS is approximately 10 times more toxic than PFOA in these organisms. In M. macrocopa , the median lethal concentration (LC50) was 17.95 mg/L for PFOS and 199.51 mg/L for PFOA. Moina macrocopa exhibited greater sensitivity than D. magna to both per±uorinated compounds in both acute and chronic exposures. In the 48-h acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was approximately two times more sensitive than D. magna . In the 7-d chronic toxicity test, M. macrocopa showed signi²cant reproductive changes at 0.31 mg/L for PFOS, which was approximately seven times lower than the effect concentrations observed over the 21-d exposure in D. magna . Two-generation ²sh toxicity tests showed that parental exposure to both compounds affected the performance of offspring. Unexposed progeny-generation (F 1 ) ²sh exhibited elevated mortality and histopathological changes that were correlated with exposure in the parental generation (F 0 ). Continuous exposure from F 0 through F 1 generations increased the extent of adverse effects. Considering the persistent nature of PFOS and PFOA, more research is required to determine potential consequences of long-term exposure to these compounds in aquatic ecosystems. Keywords —Per±uorinated compounds Thyroid Transgenerational toxicity Water ±ea Aquatic toxicity INTRODUCTION Per±uorinated chemicals are used in many industrial and commercial processes, such as lubricants, ²re retardants, poly- mer additives, pesticides, and surfactants [1,2]. Concerns about per±uorinated chemicals, particularly per±uorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and per±uorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are growing because of the global distribution, environmental persistence, and bioaccumulative nature of these compounds [3]. Because of their high-energy carbon–±uorine bonds, PFOS and PFOA resist hydrolysis, photolysis, biodegradation, and metabolism [1–3]. Numerous studies have detected the presence of PFOS and PFOA at the level of parts per trillion to parts per billion in several terrestrial and aquatic species [4–6]. In response to these concerns, the 3M Company (St. Paul, MN, USA) an-
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This note was uploaded on 08/10/2011 for the course BIOL 1108L taught by Professor Stanger-hall during the Spring '09 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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toxicity - Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 27,...

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