Research Article Final Draft

Research Article Final Draft - rate of of Daphnia over 2...

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motion of Daphnia over 2 minutes at different pHs of water. rate of Daphnia over 30 seconds at different pHs of water.
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Effects of Acidified and Basified Environment on the Locomotion and Heart rate of Daphnia Pinal Patel May 2, 2011 Jessica Hoffman BIOL 1108 L, Thursday 8:00 AM
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Introduction Wastes poured into the rivers and oceans by residential, commercial, and industrial activities cause water pollution. Water pollution affects the surrounding plants and living organisms in the water by releasing direct or indirect organic and inorganic substances. These contaminants may include detergents, insecticides, herbicides, chemicals, fertilizers, and run- offs, which are being discharged from daily use of everyday life. These discharge causes acidification or basification in freshwater. Acidification is the process of becoming acid and in contrast, basification is the process of becoming basic. For example, when Nitrogen dioxide reacts with water, it produces Nitric Acid and in contrast, when ammonia reacts with water, it produces ammonium hydroxide. Acidification in the freshwater is the stressor that affects zooplankton organisms in the river ecosystem (Weber and Pirow, 2009). Water pollution is sometimes dangerous to small water species such as Daphnia. Daphnia are mostly found in the benthos but it is also found in the water column of the mostly freshwater, moderately acidic; large bodies of water such as lakes and swamps. Daphnia are more responsive and act as an early warning to the water pollution (Gerhardt, 2005). Daphnia are small crustaceans with transparent body (Clare). The physiological information that can be obtained through transparent body structure provides a great advantage in environmental studies (Weber and Pirow, 2009). Because of their transparent body, it is easier to examine the internal organs of the body such as the heart. We can easily monitor the heart rate of individual Daphnia with a microscope. When Daphnia move through body of water, they often eat contaminants and pathogenic bacteria that go directly into their alimentary canal and can damage their tissues (Teplova et al.,
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2010). Daphnia as one of the indicator species (U.S. Environ.) is used for toxicity based on immobilization and especially on swimming activity, which highly recommended for toxicity monitoring (Gerhardt, 2005). Many lakes and rivers are being polluted by human activities results in the polluted water with different chemicals mixed with water. Since Daphnia are very sensitive to the disturbances of the environment found in the fresh water, Daphnia are used to check acidification and basification in water around many industrial areas. These disturbances
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Research Article Final Draft - rate of of Daphnia over 2...

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