Module 2 - Module 2 Thinking Critically with Psychological...

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Module 2: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science 1. The Need for Psychological Science a. Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition i. Hindsight bias : the tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it—the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon ii. Overconfidence : we tend to think we know more than we do, thanks in part to our bias to seek information that confirms our intuition b. The scientific attitude (curiosity, skepticism, humility) encourages critical thinking and helps us sift reality from illusion i. To think critically is to examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, and assess conclusions c. The Scientific Method i. Psychological theories organize observations and imply hypotheses. Researchers then test their hypotheses to validate/refine the theory and (sometimes) suggest practical implications. Through precise operational definitions of their concepts, other researchers can replicate their observations, resulting in greater confidence in the findings’ reliability.
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