Psy_-_Operant_Cond_-_Terms_w_Explanations_Chp_5

Psy_-_Operant_Cond_-_Terms_w_Explanations_Chp_5 - OPERANT...

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OPERANT CONDITIONING - Terms with Explanations Classical conditioning forms an association between two stimuli. Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and a consequence. There are two types of positive reinforcer: Primary reinforcers—rewarding stimuli that are needed to live (e.g., food, water). Secondary reinforcers—stimuli that are rewarding because they have been associated with primary reinforcers. Positive Reinforcement This is possibly the easiest, most effective consequence for a trainer to control (and easy to understand, too!). Positive reinforcement means starting or adding Something Good, something the animal likes or enjoys. Because the animal wants to gain that Good Thing again, it will repeat the behavior that seems to cause that consequence. Examples of positive reinforcement: The dolphin gets a fish for doing a trick. The worker gets a paycheck for working. The dog gets a piece of liver for returning when called. The cat gets comfort for sleeping on the bed. The wolf gets a meal for hunting the deer. The child gets dessert for eating her vegetables. The dog gets attention from his people when he barks. The elephant seal gets a chance to mate for fighting off rivals. The child gets ice cream for begging incessantly. The toddler gets picked up and comforted for screaming. The dog gets to play in the park for pulling her owner there. The snacker gets a candy bar for putting money in the machine. Secondary positive reinforcers and Bridges A primary positive reinforcer is something that the animal does not have to learn to like. It comes naturally, no experience necessary. Primary R+s usually include food, water, often include sex (the chance to mate), the chance to engage in instinctive behaviors, and for social animals, the chance to interact with others.
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A secondary positive reinforcer is something that the animal has to learn to like. The learning can be accomplished through Classical Conditioning or through some other method. A paycheck is a secondary reinforcer - just try writing a check to reward a young child for potty training! Schedules of Reinforcement, and Extinction Schedules of reinforcement In our everyday lives our actions are not normally continuously reinforced. Skinner therefore identified four main schedules of partial reinforcement: Fixed ratio schedule. Variable ratio schedule. Fixed interval schedule. Variable interval schedule A schedule of reinforcement determines how often a behavior is going to result in a reward. There are five kinds: fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio, variable ratio, and random. A fixed interval means that a reward will occur after a fixed amount of time. For example, every five minutes. Paychecks work on this schedule - every two weeks I got one.
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