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Psy_-_Operant_Cond_Terms_in_alphabet_order_Chp_5

Psy_-_Operant_Cond_Terms_in_alphabet_order_Chp_5 - TERMS...

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TERMS - OPERANT CONDITIONING Aversion Therapy : Similar to other types of behavior therapy, aversion therapy is based on the principles of learning (conditioning) and is done to eliminate the presence of some maladaptive behavior. This is done by pairing the maladaptive behavior (which is in some way rewarding to the person who engages in it -- like smoking) with a stimulus that is unpleasant. What happens then is that the pleasant behavior becomes less pleasant and decreases over time until it is gone completely. Avoidance learning: a form of operant conditioning in which an appropriate avoidance response prevents presentation of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. Continuous Reinforcement : This is an operant conditioning principle in which an organism is reinforced every single time that organism provides the appropriate operant response. For example, you, as a researcher, might present a food pellet every time the rat presses the lever. One of the biggest dangers when using this type of reinforcement is saturation (the organism basically gets full - you keep feeding it and it no longer wants the reinforcement because it is stuffed), so the idea that giving reinforcement all the time is the best way to teach/learn is not necessarily true. Discriminative stimulus: a stimulus that is present when a given response will be rewarded but absent when the response will not be rewarded. Fixed interval schedule: a situation in which the first response produced after a given interval of time is rewarded or reinforced. With this type of operant conditioning reinforcement schedule, an organism must wait (either not make the operant response, whatever it is in that experiment; or it can make the response but the response produces nothing) for a specific amount of time and then make the operant response in order to receive reinforcement. For example, if you are conducting a study in which you place a rat on a fixed-interval 30 second schedule (FI- 30s), and the operant response is pressing the lever, then the rat must wait for 30 seconds, then press the lever, and it will receive reinforcement. This type of schedule is called fixed because the amount time the organism must wait remains constant. In addition, the investigator can determine what NOT waiting will do. If the rat presses the lever before the interval has elapsed, it can either make the interval start all over again (so if the rat waits 15 seconds and then presses the lever, it starts the 30 seconds all over again), or do nothing so that the rat can press the lever constantly for 30 seconds, and then the next one will produce reinforcement.
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Fixed ratio schedule: a situation in which every nth response is rewarded. With this type of operant conditioning reinforcement schedule, an organism must make a certain number of operant responses (whatever it may be in that experiment) in order to receive reinforcement. For example, if you are conducting a study in which you place a rat on a fixed-ratio 30 schedule, and the operant response is pressing the lever, then the rat must
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Psy_-_Operant_Cond_Terms_in_alphabet_order_Chp_5 - TERMS...

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