AttachmentTheory - Attachment Theory, page 1 Attachment...

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Attachment Theory, page 1 Attachment Theory Cognitive View of Attachment Infant must develop object permanence prior to forming attachment Behavioral View of Attachment Infants become conditioned to caregivers Psychoanalytic Views of Attachment Caregiver becomes a love object Harlows’ View of Attachment Contact comfort is key to attachment Ethological View of Attachment Attachment is an inborn fixed action pattern (FAP) which occurs during a critical period in response to releasing stimulus. In humans, baby’s smile in response to human voice or face 2-3-month emergence of social smile In non-humans, FAP occurs during critical period: imprinting Harry Harlow- Harlow designed an experiment with infant rhesus monkeys. He took them away from their mother shortly after birth, and used two different surrogate mothers. One 'mother' was made of bale-wire mesh; the other was covered with terry cloth. Each mother could be equipped with a feeding nipple. Even when the bale-wire mother was the only one providing food, the infant monkeys became more attached to the terry cloth mother and used her as a secure base to explore their environments. This experiment seriously challenged the view of social learning theorists and psychoanalysts who viewed attachment mainly as a function of feeding. Contact and comfort appeared to be most important in the development of attachment, not feeding. What are the Findings of the Harlows’ Studies on the Effects of Social Deprivation with Monkeys? Monkeys reared in isolation Later avoided contact with other monkeys Did not attempt to fend off attacks by other monkeys Females who later bore children ignored or abused them Attempts to overcome effects of deprivation Deprived monkeys are placed with younger monkeys Eventually expand contacts with other monkeys Children socially withdrawn and placed with younger playmates make gains in social and emotional development John Bowlby- According to Bowlby, the infant's relationship to the parent begins as a set of innate signals that call the adult. As time passes, a true affectionate bond develops, which is supported by new cognitive and emotional capacities as well as a history of consistent, sensitive, responsive care by the parent. Out of this experience, infants form an enduring affectional bond with their caregivers that enable them to use this attachment figure as a secure base across time and distance. The inner representation of this parent-child bond becomes an important part of personality. It
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This note was uploaded on 08/10/2011 for the course CHEM 160:161 taught by Professor Siegel during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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AttachmentTheory - Attachment Theory, page 1 Attachment...

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