Module 3 - Module 3: Research Strategies: How Psychologists...

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Module 3: Research Strategies: How Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions 1. Descriptive Methods a. Case Study : an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles i. Advantage : Individual cases can describe behavior and suggest hypotheses ii. Disadvantage : Studying a single person may lead to false conclusions b. Survey: a technique for ascertaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative sample of them i. Advantage: Provides data from a large number of people ii. Disadvantage: Issue of accuracy of self-report and wording effects 1. Wording Effects : subtle changes in wording can have major effects (e.g., should X be “not allowed” vs. “forbidden”) iii. The best basis for generalization in a survey is from a representative sample of cases in the population 1. Population : all the cases in a group from which samples may be drawn for a study 2. Random Sample: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion c. Naturalistic Observation : observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
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Module 3 - Module 3: Research Strategies: How Psychologists...

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