CC106StudyGuide - StudyGuide 21/02/200917:44:00 Lecture1

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Study Guide 21/02/2009 17:44:00 Lecture 1     Why is Biodiversity important? o Human societies are functioning societies. o Biodiversity is the source of your personal welfare our national welfare  and the welfare of humanity globally. o Human societies  have  gone extinct Many of these extinctions can be attributed to biodiversity. Biodiversity Related Causes of Collapse o Longstanding factors Habitat destruction  Deforestation Soil degradation (erosion, salinization) Water management problems Overhunting/overfishing Invasive species impact native species (esp pathogens) Human population growth Increased per capita impact of human o Recent Factors Anthropogenic climate change Buildup of toxic chemicals Overuse of earth’s photosythetic capacity.
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Lecture 2     Earth’s Biodiversity is Built on a Foundation of Microbes o Earliest Organisms were microbes and it stayed that way for 2 billion  years o Microbes change the enviornment on a global scale Ex/ Photosynthesis o Ecosystem functioning EX/ Bacteria allow the abundant atmospheric nitrogen to be  utilized by plants by “fixing” it into forms accessible to plants. o Eukaryote - organism that has cells with a nucleus o Prokaryote - organism that has cells lacking a nuclues Archae - single celled organisms. Often  extremophiles . Defining Life     - What distinguishes living and non-living matter?     o Vital force Life Begets life. Evidence of common ancestry Common genetic code Same proteins are used in metabolism o Movement
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Metabolism o Irratibility o Homeostasis Maintenance of a stable internal enviornment via negative  feedback mechanisms o Natural Selection Natural selection is a universal characteristic of life For all types of organisms, viruses, or metabolically  inactive life history stages. Requirements for Natural Selection to Operate Variability - differences among offspring. Heritability offspring must resemble their parents. Differential Reproduction-   due to heritable variation  individuals differ in the reproductive sucsuess. Universality of Natural Selection in Living Systems Reproductions involves  imperfect replication . Imperfect replication produces  variation. Variations affect  reproductive success . So, if an entity reproduces, it will evolve by natural  selection . Biodiversity     o Definition - the number and variety of organisms found within a  specified geographic region. o
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CC106StudyGuide - StudyGuide 21/02/200917:44:00 Lecture1

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