chapter2[1] - MANAGEMENT THEORY Introduction and Main...

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MANAGEMENT THEORY Introduction and Main Points Civilization is the product of those who came before us. The evolution of today's management thinking begins in the nineteenth century and flourishes during the twentieth. The twentieth century witnessed a revolution in management theory moving from classical theory to the Japanese management approach. As with civilization, management theory is the result of the interdisciplinary efforts of many people. The Founders The basis of today's modern organization developed during the middle of the nineteenth century with the rise of the factory system, principally in the textile industry, where automation and mass production became the cornerstone of productivity. Management thinking, however, was slow to evolve during the century. A need existed to define what management was in the first instance, as well as to meaningfully operationalize it for an organization. During this period two principal management theorists rose to the challenge and emerged as the so-called Pre-Classicists of management thought. Pre-Classicists In the nineteenth century, Robert Owen and Charles Babbage seriously addressed the quest for the development of management theory. Owen was an entrepreneur and social reformer, while Babbage was a noted mathematician with a strong managerial interest. Robert Owen (1771-1858) Robert Owen's ideas stemmed from his ownership of a cotton mill in New Lanark, Scotland. where he developed a strong interest in the welfare of the 400 to 500 child employees. Owen spearheaded a legislative movement to limit child employment to those over the age of ten while reducing the workday to 10 1/2 hours.
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In 1813, Owen published a pamphlet, A New View of Society , where he described his vision of society. He also became active in improving living conditions of employees through the implementation of improvements in housing, sanitation, public works, and establishing schools for the children. Owen strongly believes that character is a product of circumstances and that environment and early education is critical in forming good character. While being extremely controversial during his lifetime, Owen is credited with being the forerunner of the modern human relations school of management. Charles Babbage (1792-1871) Charles Babbage, a noted English mathematician, is credited as being the "father of the modern computer" for performing the fundamental research for the first practical mechanical calculator, as well as doing basic research and development on an "analytical engine" acknowledged to be the forerunner of today's modern computer. His interest in management stemmed largely from his concerns with work specialization, or the degree to which work is divided into its parts. This is now recognized as being the forerunner of contemporary operations research. Babbage's other major management contribution came from the development of a
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chapter2[1] - MANAGEMENT THEORY Introduction and Main...

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