Psychology Notes Test 1

Psychology Notes Test 1 - PsychologyChapter1 04:13...

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Psychology Chapter 1 04:13 Introduction to Psychology: Psychology- the scientific study of behaviors and mental processes Deals with observable actions and responses and emotional processes  (dreams, etc.) 4 goals of psychology: description:      describe behaviors or mental processes; ex- what is Autism? explanation:      explain causes of behavior; ex- at 1 st  Autism thought was caused  by the way parents raised the children, but in 90s discovered was genetic prediction:      predict how people and animals will react; ex- figured out Autism is  genetic, can predict likelihood certain parents have to produce an Autistic  child control:      control behavior; ex- control so Autism never comes about (brings up  ethical questions about how much control/involvement is too much) Psychological Perspectives (different lenses with which we see the world  through) Psychoanalytical approach:      unconscious motives and experiences in early  childhood govern personality and mental disorders that develop (don’t  necessarily have memory of it, but it’s there) o Freud during 1900s, popular in 1930s-40s Behavioral approach:      only observable events can be studied scientifically o Watson in 1913; thought study of consciousness, thoughts, feelings, etc  should be abandoned o Skinner continued in 30s/40s o Main area of study- how organisms learn new behaviors or change  existing ones due to rewards/punishments o Often used in animal research Humanist approach:      humans are free, rational beings with potential for  positive growth and are fundamentally different from other animals o Rogers/Maslow 1950s o Believe people can control biology and environment  o Believe people have sense of self, while animals do not
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o Believe all people have fundamental desire to reach full potential Biological Approach:      idea that functioning can be explained in terms of bodily  structures and biochemical processes that underline behavior o Focusing on how our genes, hormones, and nervous systems interact with  environment and how this influences learning, personality, memory,  motivation, emotions, etc. Cognitive Approach:      human behavior cannot be fully understood without  examining how people acquire, store and process information Cross-Culture Approach:      to truly understand human behavior, have to  examine influences of culture o Main focus is examining the influence of culture and ethnic similarities and  differences on psychological and social functioning Main Areas of Research: Research:      want to broaden what we know o Physiological Psychology: links between body and mind (way it effects us)
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Psychology Notes Test 1 - PsychologyChapter1 04:13...

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