C#+programming01 - C Development Rob Miles 2008-2009...

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C # Development Rob Miles 2008-2009 Department of Computer Science University of Hull
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i Contents Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 11 Welcome ............................................................................................................. 11 Reading the notes ................................................................................................ 11 Getting a copy of the notes ................................................................................. 11 Computers 12 An Introduction to Computers .......................................................................................... 12 Hardware and Software ...................................................................................... 12 Data and Information ........................................................................................................ 13 Data Processing .................................................................................................. 13 Programmer’s Point:At the bottom there is always hardware ............................. 14 Programming Languages 15 What is Programming? ..................................................................................................... 15 From Problem to Program .................................................................................. 15 Programmer’s Point:The specification must always be there ............................. 16 A Simple Problem ............................................................................................................. 16 Specifying the Problem ....................................................................................... 16 Programmer’s Point:metadata is important ......................................................... 17 Programmer’s Point:Good programmers are good communicators .................... 19 Programming Languages .................................................................................................. 19 Programmer’s Point:The language is not that important ..................................... 20 C# 20 A look at C# ...................................................................................................................... 20 Dangerous C ....................................................................................................... 20 Programmer’s Point:Computers are always stupid ............................................. 21 Safe C# ............................................................................................................... 21 C# and Objects ................................................................................................... 21 Making C# Run .................................................................................................. 21 Creating C# Programs ........................................................................................ 22 The Human Computer ........................................................................................ 22 Programmer’s Point:Great programmers debug less .......................................... 22 What Comprises a C# Program? ....................................................................................... 22 Controlling the Compiler .................................................................................... 23 Storing the Data .................................................................................................. 23 Describing the Solution ...................................................................................... 23 Identifiers and Keywords .................................................................................... 23 A First C# Program 24 The Program Example ...................................................................................................... 24 using System; ............................................................................................. 24 class GlazerCalc ...................................................................................... 25 static .............................................................................................................. 25 void .................................................................................................................. 25 Main .................................................................................................................. 25 () ....................................................................................................................... 25
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ii { .......................................................................................................................... 26 double .............................................................................................................. 26 width, height, woodLength, glassArea ...................................... 26 Programmer’s Point:Know where your data comes from ................................... 26 ; ......................................................................................................................... 26 string widthString, heightString; ............................................. 27 widthString = ............................................................................................. 27 Console. ......................................................................................................... 27 ReadLine ......................................................................................................... 27 () ....................................................................................................................... 27 ; ......................................................................................................................... 28 width = ........................................................................................................... 28 double. ........................................................................................................... 28 Parse ................................................................................................................ 28 (widthString); .......................................................................................... 28 heightString = Console.ReadLine(); height = double.Parse(heightString); ............................................................ 29 woodLength = 2*(width + height)*3.25 ; ................................. 29 glassArea = 2 * ( width * height ) ; ...................................... 29 Console.WriteLine ................................................................................... 29 ( ......................................................................................................................... 29 "The length of the wood is " ......................................................... 29 + ......................................................................................................................... 29 woodLength .................................................................................................... 30 + " feet" ...................................................................................................... 30 ) ......................................................................................................................... 30 ; ......................................................................................................................... 31 } ......................................................................................................................... 31 } ......................................................................................................................... 31 Programmer’s Point:Program layout is very important ...................................... 31 Punctuation ......................................................................................................... 31 Manipulating Data 32 Variables and Data ............................................................................................................ 32 Types of Variables ............................................................................................................ 32 Storing Numbers ................................................................................................. 32 Storing integer values ......................................................................................... 33 Programmer’s Point:Check your own maths ....................................................... 33 integer literal values ............................................................................................ 34 Storing real values .............................................................................................. 34 real literal values ................................................................................................. 34 Program mer’s Point:Simple variables are probably best .................................... 35 Storing Text ........................................................................................................ 35 char variables ...................................................................................................... 35 char literal values ................................................................................................ 35 string variables .................................................................................................... 36 string literal values .............................................................................................. 37 bool variables ..................................................................................................... 37 bool literal values ............................................................................................... 37 Programmer’s Point:Think about the type of your variables .............................. 37 Identifiers .......................................................................................................................... 38 Programmer’s Point:Think about the names of your variables ........................... 38 Giving Values to Variables ............................................................................................... 39 Expressions ......................................................................................................... 39 Changing the Type of Data ............................................................................................... 40 Widening and Narrowing ................................................................................... 40 Casting ................................................................................................................ 41
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