Lecture 18 - Announcements ENV200H1S ForestEcosystems...

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1 ENV200H1S Forest Ecosystems March 22, 2011 1 Announcements TODAY is World Water Day Tutorial #4–Water , running this week Remember best 3 out of 4 tutorials will make up 30% of your final grade 2 Outline Importance of Forests Natural resource Natural capital Earth’s Forests Canada’s Forests Cd Ft Id t Canada’s Forest Industry Forest Management Traditional: Deforestation Sustainable Other forest issues 3 What do we use wood for? North America uses more wood by weight than all metals plastics and 4 metals, plastics and cement combined. 50% of wood consumed world wide is used for fuel (heating/cooking). The natural resource value of forests Logging was once the dominant activity in Canada’s forests and a key sector in Canada’s economy: the forest industry generated over $77 billion in 2003 11% of exports Once the largest contributor to our + balance of trade (81% to US, 6% to EU, 4% to Japan), but now at 10% (and falling) is behind 5 minerals (15%) and energy (20%) 3% GDP (The forestry sector was once twice as important to GDP as energy) Employs 910, 000 but #s are falling Annual Economic Review and Outlook for the Canadian Forestry Sector 2008-2008 (www.nrcan.gc.ca) Importance of Forests Less than 1/3 Earth’s area Ecosystem services Help regulate biogeochemical cycles “Carbon sinks” Release O 2 Protect watersheds: Provide habitat 6
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2 The natural capital of forests ecosystem services climate and water regulation decomposition and soi $54.8 billion in economic activity in 1999 7 decomposition and soil formation biological control food production raw materials recreational and cultural values $81 billion in ecosystem services in 1994 (compare with 70 billion in timber in 2000 $) Earth’s Forests Almost half of Earth's original forest cover is gone, much of it lost within the past 30 years 20% of the world's original forest cover remains in frontier forest 8 Russia, Canada, and Brazil contain almost 70% of frontier forest Less developed economies (primarily in tropics) produce over 50% of industrial wood, but use less than 20% Only ~ 25% of world forests are “managed” Canada: host to one of Earth’s three remaining frontier forests frontier & old growth forest dominated by indigenous trees old for their species heterogeneous patch dynamics (ages/species) 9 big enough to support viable populations of all indigenous species associated with the forest type structure/composition determined mainly by natural events (relatively unmanaged by humans, natural disturbance regimes, e.g. fire in the boreal forest) Earth’s forest zones 10 Forest Regions of Canada (45% of land base) 11 Coastal coniferous (temperate rain) forests Includes some of the tallest and most productive forests in the world Small region in BC makes up nearly half of Canada’s total timber production 12 Canada’s total timber production.
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This note was uploaded on 08/10/2011 for the course ENV 200 taught by Professor Karening during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto.

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Lecture 18 - Announcements ENV200H1S ForestEcosystems...

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