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Unformatted text preview: 1 Oceans & Urban Environments ENV200H1S April 5, 2011 1 Outline Today: Oceans contd Northwest Passage Aquaculture as a solution Urban Environments Urbanization trends Urban environmental challenges Urban sprawl Sustainable cities/smart growth Thurs (Last Class): Urban Environments contd Natural Cities Course evaluations, tutorial return, final exam format 2 Jurisdiction of a State over Waters off its Coast However, a state may not claim as "internal waters" those cases where the waters include a "strait used for international navigation" (defined as a body of water joining two areas of high seas) Territorial waters are generally accepted to be 12 nautical miles off shore (states must grant foreign vessels a right of innocent passage ) Not the same thing as EEZ (200nm) In 1951, the International Court of Justice accepted that states could draw straight baselines between most seaward points for the measurement of 3 The extent of use necessary to constitute international navigation is a matter of controversy. However any foreign ship that sails through the Passage without seeking permission (non-consensual passage) bolsters the case for an international straight seaward points for the measurement of territorial waters across areas of coast heavily indented with many off-lying islands. Macrae 1995. Arctic Perspectives www.carc.org/pubs/v22no4/loss.htm 2005: The nuclear submarine USS Charlotte Alleged to have traversed Canadian Arctic waters, although [then] U.S. ambassador Wilkins stated the passage was international July 9, 2007 PM Harper announces construction of 12 new Arctic patrol vessels (but theyll only operate from June to October and now reduced to 6 ships), a new polar icebreaker (by 2017!) and establishment of a deep- water port at Nanisivik, on Baffin Island by 2015. Canada has a choice when it comes to defending our sovereignty over the Arctic. We either use it or lose it. This Government intends to use it. July 10, 2007, Rear Admiral Timothy McGee, USN, and Rear Admiral Brian Salerno, USCG, announce that the US will increase its ability to patrol the Arctic. 4 2007: Russian expedition placed national flag on ocean floor near the North Pole This is posturing. This is the true north strong and free, and they're fooling themselves if they think dropping a flag on the ocean floor is going to change anything....
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This note was uploaded on 08/10/2011 for the course ENV 200 taught by Professor Karening during the Spring '11 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.
- Spring '11