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03.10.10 - M arch 10th Chemical regulations to keep...

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March 10 th Chemical regulations: to keep exposure below smallest dose predicted to have toxic effects in people. BUT PEOPLE VARY IN SENSITIVITY Potency: amount of substance needed to cause a particular effect Toxicokinetics: measures how a toxic chemical is absorbed / distribution / eliminated in the body Toxicodynamics: associated damages in toxicokinetics (brain barrier*) Mechanism of action: how toxin causes effects – important to treatment/avoiding toxicity Toxic effects may be chronic – appearing long after exposure begins Sub-acute: between acute and chronic Acute: consequences of exposure are quickly evident (arsenic) How toxins are absorbed is an important factor for avoiding exposure. Teratogenic effects: causes birth defects (thalidomide – drug prescribed to treat nausea in pregnant women) Developmental effects: lead and the brain Carcinogenic effects: primarily due to mutagens, which change DNA Tissue-level effects: tissues that divide quickly are more susceptible to poison: bone
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