chapter_2_structure_and_bonding

chapter_2_structure_and_bonding - Chapter 2: Structure and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2: Structure and Properties of Organic Molecules Atomic Orbitals (2.1-2.5) – Wave functions that represent the probability of finding electrons in a specific region of space s, p, d, f orbitals 33 – In organic chemistry, need to concentrate only on s and p orbitals p orbitals have a nodal plane – Area of space where the probability of finding electrons is almost zero 34 h Molecular orbitals (2.2) are produced when atomic orbitals (either native or hybridized) of different atoms interact b Produces bonding and anti-bonding orbitals * antibonding molecular orbital Molecular Orbitals for H 2 35 bonding molecular orbital relative energy s atomic orbital of hydrogen s atomic orbital of hydrogen h In the case of p orbitals, the overlap can take place in two different forms 36 37 Single Bonds (2.3) All single bonds are sigma bonds and all double or triple bonds contain only one sigma bond 38 h Sigma bonds can be formed from atomic orbitals, hybridized or native or a combination h 2 other types of bonds in organic molecules: h Pi ( π ) bond 39 h Hydrogen-bond (H-bond) h π-bond : cannot exists if a σ-bond is not already present h Result from the overlap of p orbitals of two atoms. The π-bond is always perpendicular to the sigma bond connecting the nuclei. 40 h Occur in sp 2 and sp hybridized atoms (double/triple bonds) h Double bond 4 electrons in the bonding region between the nuclei * first pair forms the sigma bond * second pair forms the pi bond Normal combination for a double 41 Normal combination for a double bond such as the one found in ethylene Example: Ethene or ethylene C C H H H H h Triple Bond 6 electrons in the bonding region between the nuclei * first pair forms the sigma bond * second/third pairs form the pi bonds Normal combination for a triple bond such as the one found in acetylene 42 Hybridization and Molecular shapes (2.4) h Molecular shapes are related to hybridization of central atom 43 sp 3 : only single bonds; 109.5 o angle (methane) sp 2 : double bond; 120 o angle (ethylene) sp: triple bond; 180 o angle (acetylene) h Atomic orbitals can combine to generate new orbitals: * Hybridization: combination of atomic orbitals of the same atom producing new orbitals of lower energy * sp, sp 2 and sp 3 These orbitals explain the geometry of molecules Shape of sp Hybrid Orbitals 44 in phase out-of-phase one s orbital combines with 3 p orbitals to form 4 new sp 3 hybrid orbitals s p sp 3 45 46 h Only 3 general shapes are normally found in organic molecules: 47 Rotation of Single Bond vs Rigidity of Double Bond (2.7) h Consider ethane: CH 3-CH 3 Each carbon is sp 3 48 Many structures of ethane are possible....
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This note was uploaded on 08/10/2011 for the course CHEM 203 taught by Professor Guyplourde during the Spring '11 term at UNBC.

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chapter_2_structure_and_bonding - Chapter 2: Structure and...

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