chapter_4_overview_of_chemical_reactions

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Study of Chemical Reactions
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head2down Introduction to Mechanisms There are four different types of organic reactions: Additions Eliminations 149 Substitutions Rearrangements
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head2down Addition Reactions Occur when 2 reactants add together to form a single product with no atoms “left over” A + B C 150
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head2down Elimination Reactions Are the opposite of addition, i.e. single reactant splits into 2 (or more) products A B + C 151
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head2down Substitution Reactions Occur when 2 reactants exchange parts to give 2 new products A B + C D B D + A C 152
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head2down Rearrangement Reactions Occur when a single reactant undergoes a reorganization of bonds and atoms, leading to an isomeric product A A' 153
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head2down Reaction Mechanism An overall description of how a reaction occurs. head2down It is a representation of the “ electron flow ” that would accompany the breaking of bonds and the formation 154 of new bonds. head2down In this process, reactive intermediates are normally formed.
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head2down Pushing electrons ” is a good graphic way to describe each step. We use arrows to describe the electronic movement in a mechanism. Arrow Representations reactants going to products 155 equilibrium resonance represents the movement of electrons
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head2down Bonds can break in 2 different ways: Homolytic cleavage : each partner takes one electron (Half-headed arrow = 1 electron moves ) Heterolytic cleavage : one partner takes 2 electrons, the other partner takes none. (normal-headed arrow = 2 electrons move ) 156
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head2down Radical reactions : process involving the symmetrical bond breaking and bond making. head2down Polar Reactions : process involving the unsymmetrical bond breaking 157 and bond making.
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head2down Radical Reactions normally require three kinds of steps: head2right Initiation (formation of a radical) head2right Propagation (radical cascade process) head2right Termination (2 radicals join to end the reaction) head2down We have already seen one example in the Chapter dealing with Alkanes: 158 Monochlorination of Methane
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