chapter_4_overview_of_chemical_reactions

chapter_4_overview_of_chemical_reactions - Study of...

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Study of Chemical Reactions
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h Introduction to Mechanisms There are four different types of organic reactions: Additions 149 Eliminations Substitutions Rearrangements
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h Addition Reactions Occur when 2 reactants add together to form a single product with no atoms “left over” A + B C 150 A + B
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h Elimination Reactions Are the opposite of addition, i.e. single reactant splits into 2 (or more) products A B + C 151
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h Substitution Reactions Occur when 2 reactants exchange parts to give 2 new products A B + C D B D + A C 152
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h Rearrangement Reactions Occur when a single reactant undergoes a reorganization of bonds and atoms, leading to an isomeric product A A 153 A'
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h Reaction Mechanism An overall description of how a reaction occurs. h It is a representation of the “ electron flow ” that would accompany the 154 breaking of bonds and the formation of new bonds. h In this process, reactive intermediates are normally formed.
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h Pushing electrons ” is a good graphic way to describe each step. We use arrows to describe the electronic movement in a mechanism. Arrow Representations n go ng o p odu 155 reactants going to products equilibrium resonance represents the movement of electrons
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h Bonds can break in 2 different ways: Homolytic cleavage : each partner takes one electron (Half-headed arrow = 1 electron moves ) Heterolytic cleavage : one partner takes 2 electrons, the other partner takes none. (normal-headed arrow = 2 electrons move ) 156
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h Radical reactions : process involving the symmetrical bond breaking and bond making. h Polar Reactions : process involving the unsymmetrica bond breaking 157 the unsymmetrical bond breaking and bond making.
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h Radical Reactions normally require three kinds of steps: H Initiation (formation of a radical) H Propagation (radical cascade process)
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This note was uploaded on 08/10/2011 for the course CHEM 203 taught by Professor Guyplourde during the Spring '11 term at UNBC.

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chapter_4_overview_of_chemical_reactions - Study of...

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