ap-art-history-course-description

Ap-art-history-cours - ART HISTORY Course Description Effective Fall 2011 AP Course Descriptions are updated regularly Please visit AP Central

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Unformatted text preview: ART HISTORY Course Description Effective Fall 2011 AP Course Descriptions are updated regularly. Please visit AP Central ® (apcentral.collegeboard.com) to determine whether a more recent Course Description PDF is available. The College Board The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board is composed of more than 5,700 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,800 colleges through major programs and services in college readiness, college admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid and enrollment. Among its widely recognized programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®), SpringBoard® and ACCUPLACER®. The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities and concerns. For further information, visit www.collegeboard.org. AP Equity and Access Policy The College Board strongly encourages educators to make equitable access a guiding principle for their AP programs by giving all willing and academically prepared students the opportunity to participate in AP. We encourage the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP for students from ethnic, racial and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underserved. Schools should make every effort to ensure their AP classes reflect the diversity of their student population. The College Board also believes that all students should have access to academically challenging course work before they enroll in AP classes, which can prepare them for AP success. It is only through a commitment to equitable preparation and access that true equity and excellence can be achieved. AP Course and Exam Descriptions AP Course and Exam Descriptions are updated regularly. Please visit AP Central® (apcentral.collegeboard.com) to determine whether a more recent Course and Exam Description PDF is available. © 2011 The College Board. College Board, ACCUPLACER, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, SpringBoard and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. inspiring minds is a trademark owned by the College Board. PSAT/ NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Contents Welcome to the AP Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AP Course Audit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AP Development Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AP Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AP Exam Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credit and Placement for AP Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting Credit and Placement Policies for AP Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 AP Art History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Student Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Teaching the Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Teaching Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Visual Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Textbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Course Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 College Course Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Section I . Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Section I: Part A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Sample Part A Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Section I: Part B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Sample Part B Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Section II . Free-Response Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Section II, Part A: Long Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Sample Long Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Section II, Part B: Short Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Sample Short Essay Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Works of Art Used in the Sample Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Teacher Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 AP Central (apcentral .collegeboard .com) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. i Welcome to the aP® Program AP ® is a rigorous academic program built on the commitment, passion and hard work of students and educators from both secondary schools and higher education . With more than 30 courses in a wide variety of subject areas, AP provides willing and academically prepared high school students with the opportunity to study and learn at the college level . Through AP courses, talented and dedicated AP teachers help students develop and apply the skills, abilities and content knowledge they will need later in college . Each AP course is modeled upon a comparable college course, and college and university faculty play a vital role in ensuring that AP courses align with college-level standards . For example, through the AP Course Audit, AP teachers submit their syllabi for review and approval by college faculty . Only courses using syllabi that meet or exceed the college-level curricular and resource requirements for each AP course are authorized to carry the “AP” label . AP courses culminate in a suite of college-level assessments developed and scored by college and university faculty members as well as experienced AP teachers . AP Exams are an essential part of the AP experience, enabling students to demonstrate their mastery of college-level course work . Strong performance on AP Exams is rewarded by colleges and universities worldwide . More than 90 percent of four-year colleges and universities in the United States grant students credit, placement or both on the basis of successful AP Exam scores . But performing well on an AP Exam means more than just the successful completion of a course; it is the gateway to success in college . Research consistently shows that students who score a 3 or higher typically experience greater academic success in college and improved graduation rates than their non-AP student peers . AP Course Audit The intent of the AP Course Audit is to provide secondary and higher education constituents with the assurance that an “AP” designation on a student’s transcript is credible, meaning the AP Program has authorized a course that has met or exceeded the curricular requirements and classroom resources that demonstrate the academic rigor of a comparable college course . To receive authorization from the College Board to label a course “AP,” teachers must participate in the AP Course Audit . Courses authorized to use the “AP” designation are listed in the AP Course Ledger made available to colleges and universities each fall . It is the school’s responsibility to ensure that its AP Course Ledger entry accurately reflects the AP courses offered within each academic year . The AP Program unequivocally supports the principle that each individual school must develop its own curriculum for courses labeled “AP .” Rather than mandating any one curriculum for AP courses, the AP Course Audit instead provides each AP teacher with a set of expectations that college and secondary school faculty nationwide have established for college-level courses . AP teachers are encouraged to develop or maintain their own curriculum that either includes or exceeds each of these expectations; such courses will be authorized to use the “AP” designation . Credit for the success of AP courses belongs to the individual schools and teachers that create powerful, locally designed AP curricula . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 1 Complete information about the AP Course Audit is available at www .collegeboard . com/apcourseaudit . AP Development Committees An AP Development Committee is a group of nationally renowned subject-matter experts in a particular discipline that includes professionals in secondary and postsecondary education as well as from professional organizations . These experts ensure that AP courses and exams reflect the most up-to-date information available, as befitting a college-level course, and that student proficiency is assessed properly . To find a list of current AP Development Committee members, please visit apcentral . collegeboard .com/developmentcommittees . AP Reading AP Exams — with the exception of AP Studio Art, which is a portfolio assessment — consist of dozens of multiple-choice questions scored by machine, and free-response questions scored at the annual AP Reading by thousands of college faculty and expert AP teachers . AP Readers use scoring standards developed by college and university faculty who teach the corresponding college course . The AP Reading offers educators both significant professional development and the opportunity to network with colleagues . For more information about the AP Reading, or to apply to serve as a Reader, visit apcentral .collegeboard .com/readers . AP Exam Scores The Readers’ scores on the free-response questions are combined with the results of the computer-scored multiple-choice questions; the weighted raw scores are summed to give a composite score . The composite score is then converted to a score on AP’s 5-point scale . While colleges and universities are responsible for setting their own credit and placement policies, AP scores signify how qualified students are to receive college credit or placement: AP SCORE 5 4 3 2 1 QUALIFICATION Extremely well qualified Well qualified Qualified Possibly qualified No recommendation AP Exam scores of 5 are equivalent to A grades in the corresponding college course . AP Exam scores of 4 are equivalent to grades of A–, B+ and B in college . AP Exam scores of 3 are equivalent to grades of B–, C+ and C in college . Credit and Placement for AP Scores Thousands of two- and four-year colleges and universities grant credit, placement or both for qualifying AP Exam scores because these scores represent a level of 2 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. achievement equivalent to that of students who have taken the comparable college course . This college-level equivalency is ensured through several AP Program processes: • College faculty are involved in course and exam development and other AP activities . Currently, college faculty: • Serve as chairs and members of the committees that develop the Course Descriptions and exams for each AP course . • Are responsible for standard setting and are involved in the evaluation of student responses at the annual AP Reading . The Chief Reader for each AP exam is a college faculty member . • Lead professional development seminars for new and experienced AP teachers . • Serve as the senior reviewers in the annual AP Course Audit, ensuring AP teachers’ syllabi meet the curriculum guidelines for college-level courses . • AP courses and exams are reviewed and updated regularly based on the results of curriculum surveys at up to 200 colleges and universities, collaborations among the College Board and key educational and disciplinary organizations, and the interactions of committee members with professional organizations in their discipline . • Periodic college comparability studies are undertaken in which the performance of college students on a selection of AP Exam questions is compared with that of AP students to ensure that grades earned by college students are aligned with scores AP students earn on the exam . For more information about the role of colleges and universities in the AP Program, visit the Value of AP to Colleges and Universities section of the College Board website at http://professionals .collegeboard .com/higher-ed/placement/ap . Setting Credit and Placement Policies for AP Scores The College Board website for education professionals has a section specifically for colleges and universities that provides guidance in setting AP credit and placement policies . Visit http://professionals .collegeboard .com/higher-ed/placement/ap/policy . Additional resources, including links to AP research studies, released exam questions and sample student responses at varying levels of achievement for each AP Exam are also available . To view student samples and scoring guidelines, visit http://apcentral . collegeboard .com/apc/public/exam/exam_questions/index .html . To review recent validity research studies, visit http://professionals .collegeboard . com/data-reports-research/cb/ap . The “AP Credit Policy Info” online search tool provides links to credit and placement policies at more than 1,000 colleges and universities . This tool helps students find the credit hours and/or advanced placement they may receive for qualifying exam scores within each AP subject at a specified institution . AP Credit Policy Info is available at www .collegeboard .com/ap/creditpolicy . If the information for your institution is not listed or is incorrect, please contact [email protected] .org . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 3 AP Art History INTroduCTIoN The AP Art History course should engage students at the same level as an introductory college art history survey . Such a course involves critical thinking and should develop an understanding and knowledge of diverse historical and cultural contexts of architecture, sculpture, painting and other media . It also provides an opportunity for schools to strengthen an area neglected in most curricula . In the course, students examine and critically analyze major forms of artistic expression from the past and the present from a variety of cultures . While visual analysis is a fundamental tool of the art historian, art history emphasizes understanding how and why works of art function in context, considering such issues as patronage, gender and the functions and effects of works of art . Many colleges and universities offer advanced placement and/or credit to students who perform successfully on the AP Art History Exam . ThE CoursE student Preparation While the course does not assume prior training or seek primarily to identify students who will major in art history in college, it does require a high degree of commitment to academic work and to the purposes of a program designed to meet college standards . Students who have done well in other courses in the humanities, such as history and literature, or in any of the studio arts are especially encouraged to enroll . It is hoped that the experiences of students in the practice of art and in other humanities courses will prove useful in enriching the context of the art history course . Teaching the Course The AP Art History Teacher’s Guide provides an excellent introduction to teaching the course (http://apcentral .collegeboard .com/apc/public/courses/teachers_corner/ 2177 .html) . In addition, teachers who have not previously taught courses in art history are advised to undertake additional study at local universities and/or at AP Summer Institutes . The AP Art History Development Committee, a group of AP Art History instructors and college and university art history educators who collaborate in the development of the course and exam, strongly suggests that teachers receive some training in college-level courses in the discipline . School administrations should be prepared to fund this professional development . AP classes require extra time on the part of the teacher for preparation, personal consultation with students, and the reading and careful criticism of a much larger number of assignments than would usually be given to students in regular classes . The Development Committee urges that any teacher offering such a class or classes be given some reduction in assigned teaching hours . Because art history depends heavily on visual and library materials, it is essential that funds be budgeted for regular purchase of books and visual materials . (See the following page for suggestions .) 4 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Although many schools are able to set up college-level AP Art History courses, in some schools AP study may consist of tutorial work associated with a regular course or an individually tailored program of independent study . The AP Art History Teacher’s Guide includes information about the content of AP courses in art history and equivalent college courses, ways to organize the course and suggestions for appropriate resource materials . The electronic discussion groups (EDGs) accessible through AP Central also provide a moderated forum for exchanging ideas, insights and practices among members of the AP professional community . Teaching resources Visual resources Teachers are encouraged to include in their courses the direct study of original works of art in their communities . In the case of architecture, local examples should be studied firsthand . Most major textbooks are accompanied by a variety of teaching materials such as a CD-ROM with many of the images, teacher and student workbooks, and information about online resources . This will help the new teacher begin to build a collection of images to support the teaching of the course . Because art history is a comparative discipline, using simultaneous projections of multiple images is standard in courses taught at the college level . Ideally, AP Art History teachers should prepare to teach the course in the same way . The Development Committee encourages all teachers to consult sources in addition to their textbooks in order to provide students with visual materials and information about them . Although slides are no longer used in the AP Art History Exam (printed color inserts have replaced the slides), boxes of approximately 20 slides, with identifications and questions from recently administered exams, may be ordered on AP Central . The AP Art History Teacher’s Guide and AP Central list image resources for AP teachers . See page 37 for more information on these resources . The AP Art History Course Home Page on AP Central (apcentral .collegeboard .com) takes you to resources such as AP workshops, previous exam questions and scoring commentary, teaching strategies, lesson plans, articles, suggested websites and other art history resources . Textbooks AP Central contains reviews of textbooks commonly used in college art history survey courses . Teachers should keep in mind that textbooks are unequal in coverage of the content required by the AP Art History Exam . In preparing and teaching their classes, teachers should consult more than one resource . While there are several excellent and widely used textbooks that focus exclusively on European art, teachers will need to supplement such works in order to provide sufficient coverage of art beyond the European tradition . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 5 Course Content The AP Art History Development Committee periodically conducts curriculum surveys to determine course content at the institutions that accept AP students . College courses generally cover the various art media in the following proportions: 40–50 percent painting and drawing, 25 percent architecture, 25 percent sculpture, and 5–10 percent other media . The AP Art History Exam reflects these distributions through multiple-choice questions and long and short essay questions . Art history emphasizes understanding works of art within their historical context by examining issues such as politics, class, religion, patronage, audience, gender, function and ethnicity . Because these contextual issues cannot be ascertained about prehistoric art, prehistoric art does not appear in the exam . Prehistoric examples such as the Woman of Willendorf, the Caves of Lascaux, and Stonehenge are not accepted as appropriate examples in Section II of the exam . The AP Art History course also teaches students visual analysis of works of art . The course teaches students to understand works of art through both visual and contextual analysis . The AP Art History Exam contains an increasing number of multiple-choice questions and essays that reflect these evolving emphases . The following content table reflects other results of the most recent college curriculum surveys, showing the content areas generally covered in these college courses and a percentage range of course time devoted to each content area . This information may be especially helpful for teachers who are beginning their first AP Art History course . The AP Art History Exam generally reflects this coverage . College Course Coverage Content I. Approximate Percentages Ancient Through Medieval A . Greece and Rome B . Early Christian, Byzantine, Early Medieval C . Romanesque D . Gothic II. Renaissance to Present A . Fourteenth Through Sixteenth Centuries B . Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries C . Nineteenth Century D . Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries III. Beyond European Artistic Traditions – Africa – the Americas – Asia – Near East – Oceania – global Islamic traditions 6 10–15% 5–10% 3–7% 7–10% 12–17% 10–15% 10–15% 10–15% Total 30% 50% 20% © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history The AP Art History Exam requires students to write two 30-minute essays . Both of these 30-minute essay questions ask students to use specific examples from different times and/or cultures . One of the questions asks students to use specific examples selected from at least one culture from beyond the European tradition . These essays may be comparative . (See pages 23–24 for more information about these questions .) ThE ExAm The format of questions in the multiple-choice and free-response sections of the AP Art History Exam may vary from year to year; the sample questions that follow are therefore intended chiefly to indicate only the types of competencies and range of subject matter to be tested . The 2009 AP Art History Released Exam (accompanied by a CD of exam images) is currently available for purchase in the College Board store . Because of the variety of abilities called for and the range of subject matter referred to, no student is expected to perform equally well on all portions of the exam . Rather, the scope of the exam is meant to help students from widely varying learning environments demonstrate the degree to which they have accomplished the overall purposes of the AP course in Art History . Several questions in the exam require simultaneous viewing of two works of art presented in printed color inserts . To help students prepare for this portion of the exam, practice sessions using two side-by-side images should be conducted in the classroom . For the parts of the exam that are based on these inserts, the exam instructions will indicate the total time allotted for each part, and the proctor will suggest the times for completing each question . However, students will be responsible for pacing themselves, as they will be able to move freely from question to question within the allotted time for each part . Information about the process used in scoring the exam, including standards and samples of students’ answers, can be found in the AP Art History Released Exams and on AP Central . AP Central also contains the Student Performance Q&A, written each year by the Chief Reader (who leads the exam scoring processes) to guide teachers in preparing students to write answers to free-response questions . The exam uses the designations b.c.e. (before the common era) and c.e. (common era) . These labels correspond to b.c. (Before Christ) and a.d. (anno Domini), which are used in some art history textbooks . A note to that effect appears in each year’s exam . section I. multiple-Choice Questions The multiple-choice section consists of 115 questions to be answered in 60 minutes . It constitutes 40 percent of the student’s AP Exam score . This section is designed to test the student’s knowledge of art history, such as basic information about artists, schools and movements; chronological periods and significant dates; cross currents among artistic traditions; and the subjects, styles and techniques of particular works of art . The multiple-choice questions allow students to demonstrate as wide a range of knowledge as is possible within the limited time available, but it is not expected that everyone will be able to answer all of the questions correctly within the limited time © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 7 Sample Questions for Art history allowed . Students are urged to pay particular attention to the requirements of questions that contain the words not, least or except . In addition, the questions in the multiple-choice section of the exam may address the following about art beyond the European tradition: general geographic origin (for example, students should be able to identify a work of art as Chinese but would not be expected to distinguish among dynastic styles) and cross currents among artistic traditions, including non-European ones . Substantive questions will continue to be asked about cultures that have traditionally been included in the survey (the ancient Near East, Egypt and Islam) . Section I is divided into two parts, Part A and Part B . section I: Part A* Beginning with the 2012 exam administration, students will answer five sets of questions based on an image or a pair of images shown in color in a printed insert. Students will have 20 minutes to answer the questions in Part A. The number of questions per set varies slightly from year to year, but beginning in 2012, Part A will comprise approximately one-third of Section I. Students look at the image or images and answer each question based on what they see and on their knowledge of art history . Questions focus on such issues as the function of works of art, patronage, period styles, chronology and technique . Students answer each question in this part of the exam by choosing the best answer from the four choices offered . Students are urged to pay particular attention to the requirements of questions that contain the words not, least or except . sample Part A Questions The sample questions begin on page 9 . Additional questions from previous exams can be found on AP Central . Directions: Part A of the exam is divided into sets of questions based on color images shown in a printed insert . In the sets, each of the questions or incomplete statements is followed by four suggested answers or completions . Select the one that is best in each case and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet . You will have twenty minutes to answer the questions in Part A, and you are advised to spend four minutes on each set of questions . The proctor will announce when each four-minute interval has elapsed, but you may proceed freely from one set to the next . *In an actual exam, works of art will be shown in color in a printed insert . No identification will appear with the images . In these sample questions, however, the works of art reproduced are identified on page 36 . 8 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history InterIor of the cathedral begun In 1078 (photo), spanIsh school, (11th centur y) / cathedral of st. James, santIago da compostela, spaIn / the brIdgeman art lIbrar y Questions 1–7 refer to the corresponding color images shown in the insert .* 1 . The plan and the interior view identify the style of the church as (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 . The mathematical unit that organizes the plan is derived from the (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 . Early Christian Byzantine Romanesque Gothic radiating chapels crossing square towers apse The builders organized the nave of the church in three-dimensional modules called (a) (b) (c) (d) bays cells niches apsidioles *For the purposes of this book, black-and-white reproductions have been used . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 9 Sample Questions for Art history 4 . Which of the following help to articulate the three-dimensional modules of the nave? (a) (b) (c) (d) 5 . The nave of the church is covered by (a) (b) (c) (d) 6 . clerestory triforium gallery crypt The design of churches such as this was most likely a practical response to the medieval phenomenon of (a) (b) (c) (d) 10 a coffered ceiling a barrel vault groined vaults domical vaults The interior shows a two-story elevation consisting of a nave arcade and a (a) (b) (c) (d) 7 . Pendentives and squinches Colonnades and architraves Posts and lintels Compound piers and transverse arches the Inquisition pilgrimage feudalism the papacy © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history Questions 8–14 refer to the corresponding color images shown in the insert .* thomas eakIns, The Gross CliniC, 1875. phIladelphIa museum of art: gIft of the alumnI assocIatIon to Jefferson medIcal college In 1878 and purchased by the pennsylvanIa academy of the fIne arts and the phIladelphIa museum of art In 2007 wIth the generous support of more than 3,400 donors. 8 . The work on the left is an oil painting, while the work on the right is in which of the following media? ( a) (b) (c) (d) 9 . JosIah Johnson hawes and albert sands southworth, early operaTion UsinG eTher, c. 1847. (daguerreotype. courtesy of the massachusetts general hospItal archIves and specIal collectIons.) Lithograph Daguerreotype Aquatint Silk screen In the work on the left, the artist used light to ( a) (b) (c) (d) indicate the time of day dramatically highlight the doctor and the operation evenly record the details of the operating room soften the harshness of this gory scene 10 . The artist of the work on the left was concerned with light in a way that recalls ( a) (b) (c) (d) Rembrandt Giotto Monet Vermeer *For the purposes of this book, black-and-white reproductions have been used . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 11 Sample Questions for Art history 11 . Both of these works belong to which century? (a) (b) (c) (d) Seventeenth Eighteenth Nineteenth Twentieth 12 . Both works represent all of the following EXCEPT (a) (b) (c) (d) a group of doctors in the operating room advancements in modern medical science a staged illustration for medical textbooks a surgical facility 13 . The viewpoint of both works is primarily that of (a) (b) (c) (d) an observer the patient the chief surgeon the sitter 14 . The style of painting most closely identified with the work on the left is (a) (b) (c) (d) 12 Romanticism Realism Neoclassicism Futurism © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history section I: Part B As in Part A, Part B of Section I requires students to answer each question by selecting the correct answer from the four choices offered . Some of the questions are based on black-and-white images printed in the exam booklet . sample Part B Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions . Select the one that is best in each case and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet . 15 . The palace at Knossos was built by (a) (b) (c) (d) the Minoan civilization in Crete, ca . 1600–1400 b.c.e. the Greek colonies in Italy, ca . 500 b.c.e. a pre-Classical Greek city-state an early Roman emperor 16 . Ambulatories are a feature developed in some Romanesque churches to accommodate ( a) (b) (c) (d) caliphs royalty pilgrims merchants 17 . Roman floors often had decorations in ( a) (b) (c) (d) mosaics terra-cotta fresco carved wood 18 . Which of the following Northern Renaissance painters was most directly influenced by Italian art of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries? ( a) (b) (c) (d) Jan van Eyck Albrecht Dürer Limbourg Brothers Rogier van der Weyden 19 . Women painters of the Renaissance era often found their career development significantly restricted by ( a) (b) (c) (d) shrinking markets for art the lack of good teachers social conventions patrons’ unwillingness to pay for new work © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 13 Sample Questions for Art history 20 . Christopher Wren’s churches in London, including St . Paul’s Cathedral, had the greatest influence on churches and civic buildings in (a) (b) (c) (d) Germany rural France the Netherlands the United States rIetveld, gerrIt, © 2003 artIsts rIghts socIety (ars), new york/beeldrecht, amsterdam. schröder house, utrecht, the netherlands. 1924. photograph courtesy of the museum of modern art, new york. dIgItal Image © the museum of modern art/lIcensed by foto marburg/art resource, new york. Questions 21–22 refer to the following image . 21 . The structure shown above is (a) (b) (c) (d) a European house a Japanese house a European factory an American art museum 22 . The style of the structure shown above most resembles (a) (b) (c) (d) 14 Dada Neoclassicism Art Nouveau the International Style © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. erIch lessIng / art resource, ny Sample Questions for Art history 23 . The Egyptian New Kingdom complex shown above was constructed for (a) (b) (c) (d) Hatshepsut Ramses II Imhotep Akhenaten 24 . Most of Honoré Daumier’s graphic works were intended for (a) (b) (c) (d) aristocratic collections religious tracts print dealers the popular press 25 . The Surrealists’ fascination with the unconscious and dreams had precedents in the works of (a) (b) (c) (d) William Hogarth Francisco de Goya Antoine Watteau Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 15 Sample Questions for Art history 26 . Which of the following is an artist whose paintings and writings reflect his early advocacy of nonrepresentational art? (a) (b) (c) (d) Kandinsky Van Gogh De Chirico Pollock 27 . “Genre painting,’’ as the term is used in art history and criticism, refers to (a) (b) (c) (d) scenes of aristocratic life Old Testament subjects, particularly those dealing with the Creation figure compositions with landscape backgrounds scenes of everyday life 28 . Which of the following art movements received widespread sponsorship by the United States government in the 1930s? (a) (b) (c) (d) Surrealism Social Realism Photorealism Postmodernism 29 . Compared to the naves of French Gothic churches, the naves of English Gothic churches were generally (a) (b) (c) (d) narrower and taller broader and lower without crossing towers domed 30 . Which of the following is a notable non-Doric feature of the Parthenon? (a) (b) (c) (d) Corinthian capitals A transept Columns without bases A continuous sculpted frieze 31 . A sculpture by Michelangelo originally planned for the tomb of Pope Julius II is (a) (b) (c) (d) David Bacchus Moses the Pietà 32 . Which of the following was created by Bramante? (a) (b) (c) (d) 16 Farnese Palace Sistine Chapel San Carlo Tempietto © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history caravaggIo, mIchelangelo merIsI da (1573–1610). DeaTh of The V irGin. louvre, parIs, france. copyrIght scala/art resource, new york. Questions 33–34 refer to the following image . 33 . The chief complaint of the patrons who rejected Caravaggio’s painting The Death of the Virgin, shown above, was that the artist had not conformed to the rules of (a) (b) (c) (d) perspective symmetry propriety nature 34 . The feature of this work that most influenced other artists was its (a) (b) (c) (d) pyramidal stability dramatic lighting open composition idealized figures 35 . Students in nineteenth-century art academies were encouraged to do all of the following except (a) (b) (c) (d) paint spontaneously and freely draw from plaster casts draw from nude models visit museums © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 17 Sample Questions for Art history 36 . The French artist Henri Matisse is associated with the style of painting called (a) (b) (c) (d) Futurism Fauvism Symbolism Impressionism 37 . The forerunner of Conceptual art was (a) (b) (c) (d) Marc Chagall Thomas Cole Umberto Boccioni Marcel Duchamp 38 . Which of the following artists is known primarily for her work with abstract, organic forms in sculpture? (a) (b) (c) (d) Barbara Hepworth Audrey Flack Georgia O’Keeffe Cindy Sherman 39 . True fresco is painting on (a) (b) (c) (d) canvas wet plaster treated wood silk 40 . The concept of a divinely sanctioned Manifest Destiny was reinforced by the majestic landscapes of (a) (b) (c) (d) Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley John Sloan and Aaron Douglas John Singer Sargent and Thomas Eakins Albert Bierstadt and Frederick Edwin Church 41 . Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals have which of the following in common? (a) (b) (c) (d) Flying buttresses used as exterior supports for a high ceiling A floor plan designed essentially in the shape of a cross Large tracery windows used in the clerestory Groined vaulting and round arches used to span large areas 42 . The subject of Christ handing the keys to St . Peter appeared in Renaissance art because it was understood to be a justification for the authority of the (a) (b) (c) (d) 18 bourgeoisie dukes of Florence popes Holy Roman emperors © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history 43 . The primary interest of the Barbizon school was (a) (b) (c) (d) mythology landscape urban scenes the human figure 44 . In her work Mary Cassatt demonstrated a keen interest in (a) (b) (c) (d) landscapes of Italy animal paintings Hudson River scenes Japanese prints © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 19 Sample Questions for Art history the cleveland museum of art, John l. severance fund. Questions 45–46 refer to the following image . 45 . This handscroll was painted in which of the following media? (a) (b) (c) (d) Egg tempera Oil Ink Encaustic 46 . The subject is characteristic of paintings from (a) (b) (c) (d) 20 India China Egypt Islamic Spain © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history photo credIt: dIgItal Image © the museum of modern art/lIcensed by scala/ art resource, new york. Questions 47–50 refer to the following images . 47 . The artist of the work is (a) (b) (c) (d) Max Beckmann Emil Nolde Max Ernst Salvador Dalí 48 . The work was painted in the (a) (b) (c) (d) 1890s 1930s 1960s 1990s 49 . The artist was associated with which movement? (a) (b) (c) (d) Expressionism Futurism Fauvism Surrealism 50 . The primary motivation for the work was the (a) (b) (c) (d) rise of Nazism in Germany devastation of European forests destruction of classicism banality of modern life © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 21 Sample Questions for Art history Answers to multiple-Choice Questions 1–c 21 – a 31 – c 41 – b 2–b 12 – c 22 – d 32 – d 42 – c 3–a 13 – a 23 – a 33 – c 43 – b 4–d 14 – b 24 – d 34 – b 44 – d 5–b 15 – a 25 – b 35 – a 45 – c 6–c 16 – c 26 – a 36 – b 46 – b 7–b 17 – a 27 – d 37 – d 47 – a 8–b 18 – b 28 – b 38 – a 48 – b 9–b 19 – c 29 – b 39 – b 49 – a 10 – a 22 11 – c 20 – d 30 – d 40 – d 50 – a © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history section II. Free-response Questions This part of the exam allows a student to demonstrate his or her ability to analyze works of art . Identification or attribution is sometimes required . Most questions, however, focus on the student’s ability to apply knowledge to the analysis of known and unknown works of art and documents, and to construct a persuasive argument that uses visual evidence in support of a claim . Student essays that are organized, thorough, and that answer the question clearly and directly will earn the highest scores . Student essays that simply describe a work of art, list the characteristics evident in an image (for example, through the use of bullet points), and/or do not answer the question asked will earn lower scores . Essays should respond to the question with the particular kind of analysis of the work(s) of art asked for in the question: historical, contextual, functional, cultural, social, religious, political or visual . The best answers articulate fully the relationship between the work of art and its time and place in history . Learning to frame a written argument that relates how AND why works of art communicate visual meanings is an important component of the AP Art History course . A student who cannot identify an image precisely but who can articulate clearly the relationship between the work of art and its function, meaning and context is likely to earn a higher score than a student who can identify the image precisely but cannot articulate its relationship to function, meaning and context . On the other hand, personal opinions that attempt to evaluate the relative excellence of works of art (as in good, better and best) should be avoided . Examples of student essays with further discussions may be found on AP Central . Go to the AP Art History Course Home Page and click on “AP Art History Exam Information” to see free-response questions and sample essays from recent years . Beginning in 2012, there will be no 5-minute essay questions. There will be a total of 8 free-response questions divided into two parts, Part A and Part B. Part A will include Questions 1 and 2, the 30-minute essay questions. Part B will include Questions 3 through 8, the 10-minute essay questions based on color images and/or text. Some free-response questions may require students to compare two works. section II, Part A: Long Essay Questions The two 30-minute essays comprise about 25 percent of the student’s AP Exam score . The questions are designed to address significant art historical problems, including contextual, stylistic, chronological and patronage issues . Students must select and fully identify specific works of art as evidence in their essays . For Question 1, students must incorporate into their responses at least one example of art beyond the European tradition . Because contextual issues such as politics, class, religion, patronage, audience, gender, function and ethnicity cannot be ascertained about prehistoric art, prehistoric examples are not appropriate for these essays . Prehistoric examples such as the Woman of Willendorf, the Caves of Lascaux, and Stonehenge are not accepted as appropriate examples . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 23 Sample Questions for Art history A student’s choice of works is critical to a complete and satisfactory essay . The examples must be appropriate to the student’s argument . As in all good art historical writing, the works themselves must drive the argument of the essay . The questions that follow are typical of the kinds of questions that will be presented . sample Long Essay Questions The following sample questions can serve as models for preparing your students to respond to the questions on the exam . See AP Central for additional questions from previous exams . Directions: You have one hour to answer the two questions in this part, and you are advised to spend 30 minutes on each question . The proctor will announce when each 30-minute interval has elapsed, but you may proceed freely from Question 1 to Question 2 . Do NOT go on to Part B or open the Part B insert until you are told to do so . Read the questions carefully and take time to think about what the questions ask . You can receive full credit only by directly answering the questions . Therefore, spend a few minutes organizing or outlining your responses in the blank space provided above the questions . Notes written in the blank space will not be scored . Analyze each question thoroughly and choose appropriate examples for your responses . Identify your examples as fully as possible . • Cultural attitudes about women are often revealed in art . Select and fully identify two works of art that depict one or more women . The works must come from two different cultures, one of which must be from beyond the European tradition . Explain how each work reveals its culture’s attitudes about women . (30 minutes) • Throughout history, art has been used as propaganda to shape public opinion . Propaganda takes many forms, such as architecture, paintings and print media, and is used to promote religious, political and social ideologies . Select and fully identify two works, in any medium, that were used to shape public opinion . One of your examples must date before 1900 c.e., and one must date after 1900 c.e. Citing specific elements in each work, analyze how each work conveyed its propagandistic message to its intended audience . (30 minutes) • The relationship between an artist or architect and a patron very often shapes the form and content of works of art or architecture . Identify two works, each from a different art historical period, and name the specific persons who commissioned them . Discuss how the specific interests and intentions of the particular patrons are revealed in each work . (30 minutes) • Frequently in the history of art, artists and architects have challenged established traditions . Select and fully identify two works that challenged established traditions . One example must have been produced before 1800 c.e. Discuss how and why each work constituted a significant challenge to accepted artistic conventions of its time . (30 minutes) 24 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history section II, Part B: short Essay Questions* This part of the exam consists of six questions, each based on one or two color images and/or on a quotation from a primary source or document . This section is to be completed in 1 hour, and it comprises 35 percent of a student’s AP Exam score . The proctor begins timing for Part B when students have opened the insert, and announces when students should move on to the next question . Students are given 1 hour to answer the short-answer questions, and are advised to spend 10 minutes per question . The proctor announces when the time for each question has elapsed, but students may proceed freely from one question to the next . Students may write on the image inserts, but the only responses that will be scored are those that are written on the lined pages in the Section II booklet . One of the short essay questions includes primary source material . Primary sources or documents will typically be identified for the student and are intended to stimulate thinking about the question . On occasion, no image is provided with this type of question; students are then required to select, identify, and analyze an appropriate work they have studied as part of the response . Examples of questions that are based on primary sources appear on pages 34 and 35 . The examples presented here are typical of the kinds of questions that may be included in this portion of the exam . Students must read each question carefully and answer the question asked to earn full credit . *In an actual exam, works of art will be shown in color in a printed insert . No identification will appear with the images . In these sample questions, however, the works of art reproduced on pages 26–34 are identified on page 36 . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 25 Sample Questions for Art history sample short Essay Questions The following sample questions can serve as models for preparing your students to respond to the questions on the exam . See AP Central for additional questions from previous exams . Directions: The questions in this part are based on color images and/or text . The corresponding images are shown in the insert . Each question is timed separately, as indicated by the length of time noted after each question . The proctor will announce when the time for each question has elapsed, but you may proceed freely from one question to the next . Note: For questions involving two images, when you are not asked specifically to name the artists and/or titles of the works, you may refer to the work on the left as (L) and the work on the right as (R) . fred s. kleIner and chrIstIn J. mamIya, GarDner’s arT ThroUGh The aGes, 12th ed. (belmont, calIf.: thomson/ wadsworth, 2005): 433. The oCTaGon wiTh The emperor’s Box (photo) by german school (9th centur y), aachen cathedral, aachen, germany/bIldarchIv steffens/the brIdgeman art lIbrar y. 1 . The images show a plan and an interior view of Charlemagne’s Palatine Chapel in Aachen, circa 800 c.e. The building contains deliberate references to earlier architecture . Name at least one earlier architectural period referenced in the Palatine Chapel . Identify one significant way in which the Palatine Chapel reinterprets architectural elements of that earlier period and explain why . (10 minutes) 26 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. The GUiTar player, c. 1672 (oIl on canvas), vermeer, Jan (1632-75). the Iveagh bequest, kenwood house, london, uk/the brIdgeman art lIbrar y. Sample Questions for Art history 2 . Attribute this painting to an artist you have studied . Support your attribution by comparing this painting to another specific painting by the same artist . (10 minutes) © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 27 Sample Questions for Art history © hugh rooney; eye ubIquItous/corbIs alInarI / art resource, ny 3 . The architect of the building shown on the right is Leon Battista Alberti . Name the period of the building on the right . How and why did Alberti adapt elements of the work on the left? (10 minutes) 28 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. goya y lucIentes, francIsco de (1746–1828). The ThirD of may 1808 in maDriD. 1814. oIl on canvas, 266 3 345 cm. museo del prado, madrId, spaIn. copyrIght erIch lessIng/art resource, new york. photo © natIonal galler y of canada, ottawa. natIonal galler y of canada, ottawa. transfer from the canadIan war memorIals, 1921 (gIft of the 2nd duke of westmInster, england, 1918). Sample Questions for Art history 4 . These two paintings take different approaches to contemporary political events . How does each work reflect a particular political point of view? (10 minutes) © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 29 barbara kruger, UnTiTleD (yoUr Gaze hiTs The siDe of my faCe), 1981. copyrIght: barbara kruger. courtesy: mar y boone galler y, new york. Sample Questions for Art history 5 . This work was made by the American artist Barbara Kruger . Analyze how Kruger uses image and text and appropriation to convey meaning in this work . (10 minutes) 30 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history portraIt of a roman patrIcIan, from otrIcolI, Italy, ca. 75–50 b.c.e. museo torlonIa, rome. portraIt of constantIne, from the basIlIca nova, ca. 315–330 c.e. palazzo deI conser vatorI, rome. (erIch lessIng/art resource, new york) 6 . The work on the left is from the beginning of the Roman portrait tradition, and the work on the right is from the end of that tradition . Identify the portrait on the right . Discuss ways in which the function and time period of each work account for the differences in their appearances . (10 minutes) © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 31 GooD GoVernmenT in The CiTy, 1338–1339 (detaIl) (fresco), lorenzettI, ambrogIo (1285–c. 1348), palazzo pubblIco, sIena, Italy. the brIdgeman art lIbrar y. ambrogIo lorenzettI, sala della pace (room contaInIng lorenzettI frescoes of good and bad government), palazzo pubblIco, sIena, 1338–1339. scala/art resource, new york. Sample Questions for Art history 7 . These are two views of the same fresco cycle in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena . Identify the artist . Explain how the subject and meaning of the fresco cycle relate to its location . (10 minutes) 32 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. w IllIam hogarth, The BreakfasT sCene, from marriaGe à la moDe, c. 1745 © the natIonal galler y, london. marriaGe à la moDe: i—The marriaGe seTTlemenT, c. 1743 (oIl on canvas) by hogarth, w IllIam (1697–1764). © natIonal galler y, london, uk/the brIdgeman art lIbrar y. Sample Questions for Art history 8 . Both of these paintings were made by the same artist . Identify the artist . Citing specific details from the paintings, analyze how the artist used satire to comment on class and taste in the society of the time . (10 minutes) © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 33 Jackson pollock, aUTUmn rhyThm (number 30), 1950. Image copyrIght © the metropolItan museum of art/art resource, new york. Sample Questions for Art history 9 . Both the 1950 painting shown and the quotation below are by the same artist . “My painting does not come from the easel . . . . I prefer to tack the unstretched canvas to the hard wall or the floor . . . . On the floor I am more at ease . I feel nearer, more a part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting . . . . When I am in my painting, I’m not aware of what I’m doing . . . . I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image, etc ., because the painting has a life of its own . I try to let it come through .” Identify the artist . How does the painting reflect the artist’s description of his process? In your answer, make specific references to both the quotation and the painting . (10 minutes) 34 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. Sample Questions for Art history 10 . This excerpt comes from Charles Baudelaire’s “On the Heroism of Modern Life,” part of a critique of the Salon of 1846 . “[S]ince all centuries and peoples have their own form of beauty so inevitably we have ours . . . “The pageant of fashionable life and thousands of floating existences — criminals and kept women — which drift about in the underworld of a great city . . . all prove that we have only to open our own eyes to recognize our heroism . . . . The life of our city is rich in poetic and marvelous subjects . . . “The themes and resources of painting are . . . abundant and varied; but there is a new element — modern beauty .” What new approach to the making of art does Baudelaire suggest to artists in the excerpt above? Your essay must identify and discuss how at least one work of mid- to late-nineteenth-century art reflects Baudelaire’s ideas . (10 minutes) © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 35 Works of Art used in the sample Questions multiple-Choice Questions 1–7 . 8–14 . 21–22 . 23 . 33–34 . 45–46 . 47–50 . Plan, Santiago Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Interior, Santiago Cathedral, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, c . 1078–1211 . 9 Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic, 1875 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Josiah Johnson Hawes and Albert Sands Southworth, Early Operation Using Ether, c . 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Gerrit Rietveld, Schröder House, Utrecht, 1924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut, c . 1473–1458 b.c.e . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Caravaggio, Death of the Virgin, 1606 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Detail of hand scroll, Chao Meng-fu, Bamboo, Rocks, and Lonely Orchids, c . 13th century c.e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Max Beckmann, Departure, 1932–1935 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 short Essay Questions 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 36 Plan of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, Germany, c . 800 c.e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Interior of the Palatine Chapel in Aachen, Germany, c . 800 c.e. . . . . . . . . . . 26 Jan Vermeer, The Guitar Player, 1672 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Arch of Constantine, Rome, 312–315 c.e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Alberti, Leon Battista (1404–1472) S . Andrea . Facade . Designed 1470 . Location: S . Andrea, Mantua, Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1770 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Barbara Kruger, Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1981 . . . . . . . 30 Portrait of a Roman patrician, from Otricoli, Italy, c . 75–50 b.c.e. . . . . . . . . . . 31 Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, c . 315–330 b.c.e. . . . . . . . . . 31 Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Sala della Pace (room containing Lorenzetti frescoes of Good and Bad Government), Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338–1339 . . . . . . . 32 Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government in the City, fresco in the Sala della Pace, Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, 1338–1339 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 William Hogarth, I—The Marriage Settlement (or The Marriage Contract), from Marriage à la Mode, c . 1743 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 William Hogarth, The Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, c . 1745 . . . 33 Jackson Pollock, Autumn Rhythm (Number 30), 1950 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. teacher Support AP Central® (apcentral.collegeboard.com) You can find the following Web resources at AP Central: • AP Course Descriptions, information about the AP Course Audit, AP Exam questions and scoring guidelines, sample syllabi and feature articles . • A searchable Institutes and Workshops database, providing information about professional development events . • The Course Home Pages (apcentral .collegeboard .com/coursehomepages), which contain articles, teaching tips, activities, lab ideas and other course-specific content contributed by colleagues in the AP community . • Moderated electronic discussion groups (EDGs) for each AP course, provided to facilitate the exchange of ideas and practices . Additional Resources Teacher’s Guides and Course Descriptions may be downloaded free of charge from AP Central; printed copies may be purchased through the College Board Store (store .collegeboard .com) . Course Audit Resources. For those looking for information on developing syllabi, the AP Course Audit website offers a host of valuable resources . Each subject has a syllabus development guide that includes the guidelines reviewers use to evaluate syllabi as well as multiple samples of evidence for each requirement . Four sample syllabi written by AP teachers and college faculty who teach the equivalent course at colleges and universities are also available . Along with a syllabus self-evaluation checklist and an example textbook list, a set of curricular/resource requirements is provided for each course that outlines the expectations that college faculty nationwide have established for college-level courses . Visit www .collegeboard .com/apcourseaudit for more information and to download these free resources . Released Exams. Periodically the AP Program releases a complete copy of each exam . In addition to providing the multiple-choice questions and answers, the publication describes the process of scoring the free-response questions and includes examples of students’ actual responses, the scoring standards, and commentaries that explain why the responses received the scores they did . Released Exams are available at the College Board Store (store .collegeboard .com) . Additional, free AP resources are available to help students, parents, AP Coordinators and high school and college faculty learn more about the AP Program and its courses and exams . Visit www .collegeboard .com/apfreepubs for details . © 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org. 37 21 Contact us AP Services P.O. 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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2011 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gonzales during the Spring '10 term at University of Phoenix.

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