03 - Lecture 03 - 19/10/2010 Computer Organization and...

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1 Computer Organization and Architecture Computer Evolution and Performance Dr. Ersun İşçioğlu Eastern Mediterranean University, School of Computing and Technology, Department of IT e-mail: ersun.iscioglu@emu.edu.tr Historical Development of Computer b The First Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers (1942 - 1953) b Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) b Inventors: John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert b University of Pennsylvania, 1946 b ENIAC was the FIRST general-purpose computer b For war purposes, ballistic trajectory b Trajectory tables for weapons s Started 1943 s Finished 1946 s Too late for war effort s Used until 1955 -2-
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2 ENIAC - details b Decimal ( not binary ) s Not a digital computer, it was a decimal computer (analog) b 20 accumulators of 10 digits b Programmed manually by switches b 18,000 vacuum tubes b 30 tons b 15,000 square feet b 140 kW power consumption b Only 5,000 additions per second -3- The First Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers (1942 - 1953) Vacuum Tubes -4-
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3 -5- The real implementation of ENIAC The real implementation of ENIAC. .. -6-
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4 The real implementation of ENIAC. .. -7- Limitations of ENIAC b (1) On the ENIAC, all programming was done at the digital logic level. b (2) Programming the computer involved moving plugs and wires. b (3) A different hardware configuration was needed to solve every unique problem type. -8- Configuring the ENIAC to solve a “ simple ” problem required many days labor by skilled technicians.
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5 Remember – From week 1 b Digital Computers s Imply that the computer deals with digital information, i.e., it deals with the information that is represented by binary digits s Why BINARY ? instead of Decimal or other number system ? b * Consider electronic signal -9- signal range 0 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 binary octal Remember – From week 1. .. -10- 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213 5 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314 6 6 7 8 9 101112131415 7 7 8 9 10111213141516 8 8 9 1011121314151617 9 9 101112131415161718 * Consider the calculation cost - Add 0 1 0 1 1 10 0 1
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6 Historical Development of Computer. .. b John von Neuman proposed : EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer) - first stored program computer -1945 b von Neumann Machine; s Address the limitations of ENIAC by storing instructions in memory. s Any computer with the stored program concept is considered as a von Neumann system with von Neumann architecture, in which: s (1) data and program can be stored in the same memory space, thus, the machine itself can alter either its programs or its internal data. s (2) program instructions are executed sequentially -11- von Neumann/Turing b Stored Program concept b Main memory storing programs and data b ALU operating on binary data b Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing b Input and output equipment operated by control unit b Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies s IAS b Completed 1952 -12- The First Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers (1942 - 1953)
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7 Real implementation of von Neumann Machine -13- von Neumann/Turing. ..
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03 - Lecture 03 - 19/10/2010 Computer Organization and...

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