04 - Lecture 04 - 27/10/2010 Computer Organization and...

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1 Computer Organization and Architecture A Top-level View of Computer Function and Interconnection Dr. Ersun İşçioğlu Eastern Mediterranean University, School of Computing and Technology, Department of IT e-mail: ersun.iscioglu@emu.edu.tr Key Concepts b We have seen the main parts of computers, NOW we need the interconnection structure between them. b Connections are s Memory---CPU s I/O----CPU s Memory---I/O -2-
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2 Key Concepts… b The Computer consists of CPU, memory and I/O components, with one or more modules of each type. b These components are interconnected in some way to achieve the basic function of the computer, which is to execute programs. b The collection of paths connecting the various modules is called the interconnection structures . -3- Top level b At top level we can describe a computer by s a-Describing external behaviour of each component s b-Describing interconnection structure and control signals required -4-
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3 Computer Components b All contemporary computer designs are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton U. b Such a design is referred to as the von Neumann architecture and based on 3 concepts: s Data and instructions are stored in a single read-write memory s The contents of this memory are addressable by location, without regard to type of data contained there s Execution occurs in a sequential fashion from one instruction to the next. -5- Components b The Control Unit and the Arithmetic and Logic Unit constitute the Central Processing Unit b Data and instructions need to get into the system and results out s Input/output b Temporary storage of code and results is needed s Main memory -6-
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4 Program Concept b Hardwired systems are inflexible. b General purpose hardware can do different tasks, given correct control signals. b Instead of re-wiring, supply a new set of control signals. -7- What is a program? b A sequence of steps b For each step, an arithmetic or logical operation is done b For each operation, a different set of control signals is needed -8-
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5 Programming b Two approaches to programming b Hardware Programming : s Process of connecting the various components in the desired configuration in the form of hardware b Software Programming: s Instead of rewiring the hardware for each new program, generate a sequence of codes or instructions--software -9- H/W and S/W Programming -10-
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6 H/W and S/W Programming. .. b If only hardware programming is used, always rewiring is needed for each new program b If software programming is used s Controls same hardware with software(needs interpreter) and no need for rewiring always. s Just change the instructions. -11- Function of Control Unit b For each operation a unique code is provided s e.g. ADD, MOVE b A hardware segment accepts the code and issues the control signals b We have a computer!
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04 - Lecture 04 - 27/10/2010 Computer Organization and...

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