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05 - Lecture 05 - Computer Organization and Architecture...

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05/12/2010 1 Computer Organization and Architecture Cache Memory, Internal Memory External Memory Dr. Ersun İşçioğlu Eastern Mediterranean University, School of Computing and Technology, Department of IT e-mail: [email protected] General Characteristic of Memory Systems a. Location b. Capacity c. Unit of transfer d. Access method e. Performance f. Physical type g. Physical characteristics h. Organization -2-
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05/12/2010 2 General Characteristic of Memory System… a. Location Processor Internal: main memory, registers, caches External: disk, tape (accessible via I/O controller) b. Capacity Word size: no of bits used to represent a number no of addressable units Capacity expressed in bytes (words)1 byte=8 bits For addresses of length A (in bits), no if addressable units is 2 A common word lengths 8,16,32 bits -3- no of bits General Characteristic of Memory System… boxshadowdwn Unit of transfer head2right Word head2right Block head2right For internal memory: no of data lines into and out of memory module (64, 128, 256,bits or a word 8 bits) head2right For main memory: no of bits readout or written into memory at a time head2right For external memory: data transferred much larger units barb2right blocks -4-
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05/12/2010 3 General Characteristic of Memory System… boxshadowdwn Access method checkbld Sequential checkbld Direct checkbld Random checkbld Associative -5- General Characteristic of Memory System… boxshadowdwn Access method head2right Sequential xrhombus Memory is organized into units of data barb2right records xrhombus Access starts at beginning and read in order xrhombus Access time depends on location of data xrhombus Tape units are sequential access head2right Direct xrhombus Individual blocks or records have unique address based on physical location xrhombus Access is direct access to desired information xrhombus Access time depends on location of data xrhombus Disk unit are direct access -6-
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05/12/2010 4 General Characteristic of Memory System… boxshadowdwn Access method (Continue) head2right Random xrhombus Access is direct to desired location xrhombus Access time is constant xrhombus Main memory & some cache systems are random access head2right Associative xrhombus Data is located by comparison with contents of a portion of store xrhombus Access time is constant xrhombus Cache memories may employ associative access -7- General Characteristic of Memory System… boxshadowdwn Performance square4 Access time (Latency) xrhombus For random access: time taken to perform a read or write operation xrhombus For non-random access: time taken to position read\write mechanism at desired location square4 Memory cycle time (MCT) square4 Time to recover before next access square4 Related with system bus, not processor square4 Transfer rate square4 Rate at which data can be transferred into or out of a memory unit (bits/second) -8-
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05/12/2010 5 General Characteristic of Memory System… boxshadowdwn Physical type : most common are semiconductor (RAM) and magnetic surface memories (disk, tape) and
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