06 - Lecture 06 - 19/12/2010 Computer Organization and...

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1 Computer Organization and Architecture COMPUTER ARITHMETIC Dr. Ersun İşçioğlu Eastern Mediterranean University, School of Computing and Technology, Department of IT e-mail: ersun.iscioglu@emu.edu.tr Introduction b CPU consists of control unit registers arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) instruction execution unit interconnections among these components b Representations of numbers (binary format) and techniques for implementing arithmetic operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide) are functions of ALU . b These two considerations apply to integers and floating-point arithmetic . -2-
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2 Introduction. .. b A bit is the most basic unit of information in a computer. s It is a state of ”on” or ”off” in a digital circuit. s Sometimes these states are ”high” or ”low” voltage instead of ”on” or “off”. . b A byte is a group of eight bits . s A byte is the smallest possible addressable unit of computer storage. s The term, addressable, means that a particular byte can be retrieved according to its location in memory. -3- Introduction. .. b A word is a contiguous group of bytes. s Words can be any number of bits or bytes. s Word sizes of 16, 32, or 64 bits are most common. s In a word-addressable system, a word is the smallest addressable unit of storage. b A group of four bits is called a nibble (or nybble ). s Bytes, therefore, consist of two nibbles: a “high-order” nibble, and a “low-order” nibble. -4-
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3 Positional Numbering Systems b Bytes store numbers when the position of each bit represents a power of 2. s The binary system is also called the base-2 system. s Our decimal system is the base-10 system.
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This note was uploaded on 08/12/2011 for the course ITEC 255 taught by Professor Ersuniscioglu during the Spring '11 term at Eastern Mediterranean University.

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06 - Lecture 06 - 19/12/2010 Computer Organization and...

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