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06 - Lecture 06

06 - Lecture 06 - Computer Organization and Architecture...

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19/12/2010 1 Computer Organization and Architecture COMPUTER ARITHMETIC Dr. Ersun İşçioğlu Eastern Mediterranean University, School of Computing and Technology, Department of IT e-mail: [email protected] Introduction boxshadowdwn CPU consists of control unit registers arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) instruction execution unit interconnections among these components boxshadowdwn Representations of numbers (binary format) and techniques for implementing arithmetic operations (add, subtract, multiply, divide) are functions of ALU . boxshadowdwn These two considerations apply to integers and floating-point arithmetic . -2-

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19/12/2010 2 Introduction... boxshadowdwn A bit is the most basic unit of information in a computer. square4 It is a state of ”on” or ”off” in a digital circuit. square4 Sometimes these states are ”high” or ”low” voltage instead of ”on” or “off”.. boxshadowdwn A byte is a group of eight bits . square4 A byte is the smallest possible addressable unit of computer storage. square4 The term, addressable, means that a particular byte can be retrieved according to its location in memory. -3- Introduction... boxshadowdwn A word is a contiguous group of bytes. square4 Words can be any number of bits or bytes. square4 Word sizes of 16, 32, or 64 bits are most common. square4 In a word-addressable system, a word is the smallest addressable unit of storage. boxshadowdwn A group of four bits is called a nibble (or nybble ). square4 Bytes, therefore, consist of two nibbles: a “high-order” nibble, and a “low-order” nibble. -4-
19/12/2010 3 Positional Numbering Systems boxshadowdwn Bytes store numbers when the position of each bit represents a power of 2. square4 The binary system is also called the base-2 system. square4 Our decimal system is the base-10 system. It uses powers of 10 for each position in a number.

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06 - Lecture 06 - Computer Organization and Architecture...

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