CHAPTER 13 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 13 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS - CHAPTER 13...

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CHAPTER 13  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS -     LECTURE 1: 13.1 Types of Solutions Saturated Solutions and Solubility The opposite of the solution  process (dissolution) is         called  crystallization . There is an  dynamic equilibrium  between the solution     and solute + solvent; example: a liquid at its boiling      point is where the gas and liquid phases are in      dynamic equilibrium). For solutions, this situation occurs when no more     solute can be dissolved in the solvent. At this point, we say the solution is  saturated . Definition:  amount of solute required to form a     saturated solution for a given amount of solvent is     called the  solubility  of that solute in the solvent in     that experiment. Supersaturated  solutions are also possible in which      more solute is dissolved than normally would be      at equilibrium (think about supercooling). 13.2 Molecular View of Solution Process Factors Affecting Solubility: Solute-Solvent Interactions: Polar liquids tend to dissolve in polar solvents; 
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    non-polar liquids dissolve in non-polar solvents.                  LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE!!!    Miscible liquids: mix in any proportions.              Ex.:  water and alcohol;                      water and ethylene glycol (antifreeze).    Immiscible liquids: do not mix at all.              Ex.:  water and olive oil;                      water and gasoline. Intermolecular forces are important: water and     ethanol are miscible because the broken  hydrogen       bonds  in both pure liquids are re-established     (albeit in a different way) in the mixture (solution).  The number of carbon atoms in a chain can affect
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CHAPTER 13 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS - CHAPTER 13...

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