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Unformatted text preview: I n- Group vs. Out- Group
“Us” vs. “Them”
“We” vs. “They”
Groups gain and maintain cohesion and morale through conflict with other groups
Ex. U.S. – Soviet Relations- “The cold war”
Racism as a strategy used by some employers to avoid unionism
Membership Group vs. Reference Group
Boy Scouts vs. Aryan Brotherhood
Primary vs. Secondary Groups
Face-to face- indirect (MEMO)
In timate- impersonal
Enduring- short lived
Family as the best example of a Primary Group Bureaucracy as the best example of a
Over 90% of work is conducted in a bureaucratic form of organization
You are what you.
What do you do?
I work for IBM
Bureaucracy- a form or organization which seeks to maximize human and non human
r esources in the achievement of some stated goal or end.
Major Characteristics of Bureaucracy M y own research
Division of Labor- negative
+ Savings in t raining, plus specialization, results in efficiency (speed and
-neg. Boredom, fatigue, monotony, alienation
Solution- Cross Training, Job Rotation
H ierarchy of Authority- negative
Writ ten Rules- 0
Hi r ing and Promotion on Tech Comp- positive
JOB SATISFACTION ...
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- Spring '07