History Note1

History Note1 - HistoryNotes 21:02 JANUARY13...

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History Notes 21:02 JANUARY 13 I. The Difficulties of Indian History II. Indian Life before Europeans Very diverse group of people over a lot of land 2-10 million at time of contact what we know is through the eyes of Europeans brought ideas of how society life should work huge gaps in what we know no single Indian lifestyle, however some common things: o g ift giving and reciprocity was how headmen/etc were chosen (decided  social statuses/political power) o divided labor along sex lines (men and women worked separately);  common with Europeans, although different work  Desert Life- Hope and Pueblo o very elaborate towns- permanent communities o based on agriculture w/ irrigation systems o about ¼ of population at this time o women and men worked in fields but doing different work o Spain claimed this area but very few settlements  Plains Life o nomads and hunted buffalo on foot until horses were brought by  Europeans  o lived fairly free of European contact because land was not so desirable (no  riches)  Woodlands Life, East and West o where majority of Indians were o fertile lands, fishing, etc
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o not a lot of agriculture o Iriquoi: now upstate NY Most powerful Woodland Indians Settled communities- lived in “long buildings” with as many as 2,000 Usually on hilltops with fence Family relations- same reciprocity between ‘kin groups’ within  communities and between people Shared meals with these kin groups Men- hunt/fish Women- skin deer, majority of agriculture Division of labor created problems with Europeans- they didn’t work in  fields at all; hunting/fishing were more leisure activities to them Europeans thought the Indian women were mistreated Families matrilineal- along mother’s lines and husband would move in  with wife’s family Women held positions of influence (elders) who controlled food supply;  gave real (military power) Held link w/ other tribes o Cherokee Divisions of labor like Iriquoi Largely free of European contact until late 17 th  century Spanish tried to settle Florida, never really happened on a large scale III. Indian Experiences with Europeans European motives: to settle land, find riches, and to Christianize Populations were almost wiped out because of disease Spanish Adventurers o Christopher Columbus- thought world was smaller and thought would hit  Japan eventually o Portugese told stupid because world was much bigger and funding trip  would be a stupid decision
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o Ran into Bahamas- “land of great opportunities”; some followed suit o Willing to take advantage of anyone to get what they wanted: gold, silver, 
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History Note1 - HistoryNotes 21:02 JANUARY13...

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