12 CHAP

# 12 CHAP - 12. RATIO AND PROPORTION IMPORTANT FACTS AND...

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12. RATIO AND PROPORTION IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE I. RATIO: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units, is the fraction a/b and we write it as a:b. In the ratio a:b, we call a as the first term or antecedent and b, the second term or consequent. Ex. The ratio 5: 9 represents 5/9 with antecedent = 5, consequent = 9. Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the same non-zero number does not affect the ratio. Ex. 4: 5 = 8: 10 = 12: 15 etc. Also, 4: 6 = 2: 3. 2. PROPORTION: The equality of two ratios is called proportion. If a: b = c: d, we write, a: b:: c : d and we say that a, b, c, d are in proportion . Here a and d are called extremes, while b and c are called mean terms. Product of means = Product of extremes. Thus, a: b:: c : d <=> (b x c) = (a x d). 3. (i) Fourth Proportional: If a : b = c: d, then d is called the fourth proportional to a, b, c. (ii) Third Proportional: If a : b = b: c, then c is called the third proportional to a and b. (iii) Mean Proportional: Mean proportional between

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## This note was uploaded on 08/13/2011 for the course FSD 011 taught by Professor Vinh during the Spring '11 term at Beacon FL.

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12 CHAP - 12. RATIO AND PROPORTION IMPORTANT FACTS AND...

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