IAH review-time periods

IAH review-time periods - Primitive Life was difficult,...

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Primitive Life was difficult, precarious, and short. Dance, art and music were used to influence spirits, who were believed to control everything that humans could not. Art images were recognizable but abstract. Music was monophonic, used drones, and singing generally was accompanied by drumming. Ancient Egyptian Life became civilized, but the earlier belief in spirits remained central. Architecture, art, and music were used especially to help life to continue after death. Like a mummy could, an image contained the spirit of what was depicted, and made it "alive." Some music was still believed to "have power" (such as the sound of the sistrum, a rattle sounded by Isis to frighten away evil spirits that threatened the afterlife of a deceased person). Much art had to do with the king, Pharaoh, who was the main intermediary between humans and gods. Egyptian art was more realistic than primitive art had been, but was "stylized"--kept to a particular style that persisted for three thousand years. Pyramids--tombs--impressed all later cultures that came to know of them. The tomb art and texts show that ancient Egyptians still often used music as a way to influence the spirit world, but also appreciated music and dance as entertainment. Ancient Mesopotamian The Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians developed a civilization equal to that of Egypt, but one that focused more on business and on the present life, rather than on dreams of a life after death. Each city had its own god, worshipped in the temple atop the pyramid-shaped ziggurat at the city center. Warfare was a common pursuit. Hammurabi set an early example of writing down laws. Images were still thought to incorporate spirit, and it seems that people sometimes used images as stand-ins for themselves (you could leave your image at a temple or shrine, to worship the god for you). Art styles were a mix of realistic and abstract, but art varied much more (according to time and place) than did art in Egypt, where it was remarkably consistent in style over several thousand years. The main religions of the modern Middle-Eastern and Western world-- Judaism, Christianity and Islam--all include Mesopotamian origins; Thus Abraham, patriarch of the Jews, is said to have came from the Sumerian city of Ur, and the story of Noah and "the flood" strongly resembles the Mesopotamian literary work "The Epic of Gilgamesh." Ancient Greek Greek culture got an early start with the Minoans and Myceneans; the latter probably were the early Greeks who fought the fabled Trojan war. After a dark age, a heroic age saw the singer-poet Homer formalize the accounts of those deeds of old. Next, an Archaic phase involved rather abstract-looking statues (Kouros and Kore) with Egyptianesque style features, and saw the typical Greek Temple structure gradually develop. In its Classic phase, Greek culture took a decidedly new turn. One state (Athens) went
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2008 for the course IAH 208 taught by Professor Bonge during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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IAH review-time periods - Primitive Life was difficult,...

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