08-05_Yuki%2C+Maddux%2C+Cultural+difference+of+relation-based+and+group-based+trust

08-05_Yuki%2C+Maddux%2C+Cultural+difference+of+relation-based+and+group-based+trust

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10.1 7 /0146167204271305 PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BUL ETIN Yuki et al. / CULTURE AND DEPERSONALIZED TRUST Cross-Cultural Differences in Relationship- and Group-Based Trust Masaki Yuki Hokkaido University William W. Maddux Marilynn B. Brewer Ohio State University Kosuke Takemura Hokkaido University Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cul- tures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Ameri- cans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allo- cation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed. Keywords: culture; trust; intergroup; interpersonal; identity W hen people are involved in situations where mem- bership in a social group is salient, a number of cogni- tive, affective, and behavioral processes come into play. Group situations are often marked by processes consis- 1986) and self-categorization theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987), including categoriz- ing the self and others into ingroups and outgroups, engaging in intergroup comparison and competition, identifying with ingroups, and having a depersonalized representation of the self at the level of the collective (for comprehensive reviews, see Abrams & Hogg, 2001; Brewer & Brown, 1998; Hogg, 2001). However, a recent theoretical framework proposed by Yuki (2003) suggests that the predominant characteris- tics of group cognition and behavior may differ across certain cultural contexts. According to this framework, processes consistent with social identity theory and self- categorization theory are most applicable to intergroup situations involving people from Western cultures. The typical characteristics of group cognition and behavior for East Asians, however, may be qualitatively different from those of Westerners. Although people in Western cultures tend to emphasize the categorical distinctions between ingroups and outgroups, East Asians may have a stronger tendency to think about groups as pre- dominantly relationship-based (Yuki, 2003). In group 48 Authors’ Note: The first two authors contributed equally to this article. This research was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education,
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This note was uploaded on 08/15/2011 for the course PSYCH 166AC taught by Professor Peng during the Summer '11 term at Berkeley.

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08-05_Yuki%2C+Maddux%2C+Cultural+difference+of+relation-based+and+group-based+trust

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