07252011_08_Culture+and+Cognition

07252011_08_Culture+and+Cognition - Lecture 8 Culture and...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 8 Culture and Cognition Psych166 AC: Cultural Psychology What is the function of Culture? 2 Which one is bigger? 3 Which one is bigger? 4 Culture and Visual Perception Culture and Attention Culture and Categorization Culture and Reasoning Culture and Decision Making Outline 5 The Nature of Visual Perception Empiricists consider the nature of perception is relative to the state of the perceiver and the reflection of the experience. 1. Culture and Perception 6 We learn to perceive in the ways that we need to perceive, environment and culture shape our perceptual habits. Culture and Visual illusions: Segall, Campbell and Herskovits (1966) Mller-Lyer Illusion Horizontal-Vertical Illusion Ponzo Illusion 1. Carpentered world hypothesis: Right-angled configurations are often not represented as right-angles on the retina, but the suitable retinal pictures show sharp and obtuse angles. In an environment formed principally by right angles (e.g., pieces of furniture, houses and streets lined with houses), people have learned to interpret perceived non-rectangular configurations as real (right- angled) figures. Three explanatory hypotheses for the optical illusions: 1. Front-horizontal foreshortening hypothesis: The spatial distance between the components of a visual scene and the viewer is often represented as a vertical line on the retina. People whose living space allows a very wide view have learned to interpret perceived vertical lines as wide distances. 3. Symbolizing three dimensions in two theory: In many cultures, people are used to find three- dimensional objects of their environment as two- dimensional pictures on paper. This leads to a trend to interpret two-dimensional representations as three-dimensional. These circumstances increase the susceptibility for certain optical illusions. 13 W. H. R. Rivers (1864 - 1922) : Torres Straits Expedition, 1898 Collection of data concerning: visual acuity visual-spatial perception perception constancy Subjects: Inhabitants in the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea 1. Culture and Visual Perception 14 Rivers subjects: Native of Torres Straits (Rivers, 1898) 15 W. H. R. Rivers (1905) Compared the responses to the Mueller-Lyer and horizontal-vertical illusion using groups in England, rural India, and New Guinea....
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This note was uploaded on 08/15/2011 for the course PSYCH 166AC taught by Professor Peng during the Summer '11 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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07252011_08_Culture+and+Cognition - Lecture 8 Culture and...

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