07272011_09_Culture+and+Emotion

07272011_09_Culture+and+Emotion -...

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Lecture 9 Culture and Emotion Psych166 AC: Cultural Psychology
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What is Emotion? Emotion is  automatic, brief, patterned responses  to an event that include  behavior-facial  expression and conscious appraisals.  Emotion is about affective meanings of human  experience, services both the social and  individual functions, including   social  communication and individual survival and  adaptive values.  2
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What is Emotion? For instance: Joy  => Achievement of goal. Maintains  behaviour. Smile signals encouragement to  others to approach each others Sadness  => Loss. Slows person. Signal elicits  comfort, help from others. Anger  => Prevented from achieving a goal.  More effort is required. Signals to threat or  settle conflicts over space and possessions. 3
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A general model of emotion 4 Emotion Expressive  Behavior Face Voice Gestures Etc. Subjective  Experience Feelings Sensations Etc. Physiological  Reactions Heart beating Breathing Sweating Etc. Cognitions Thoughts Attributions Etc. Motor  Behavior Running Hitting Freezing Etc. Antecedent  Stimulus
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Universality in Emotion –  The Basic Emotions Perspective 5
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1. Original Universality Studies A. Universality of facial expressions:  Charles Darwin First  to study the relationship between emotions and  facial expressions • Believed that the facial expression of emotion was an aid  to survival because it enabled people to communicate their  internal states and react to emergencies before they  developed language • Maintained that most emotions, and the facial expressions  that convey them, are genetically inherited and  characteristic of the entire human species • Concluded that facial expressions were similar across  cultures 6
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Evolution and Emotion  (Darwin, 1872: The expression of emotions in man and animals) 7
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Paul Ekman’s universality studies 1. “Basic” Emotions expression 2. Test in two preliterate tribes of New Guinea 3. New Guineans facial expression recognized by  American observers. 4. Spontaneous facial expression 8
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A. “Basic” Emotions: Paul Ekman (1972) Participants: US, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and  Japan Materials: Photographs of facial expression Task: Label each expression There are high agreements of some basic facial  expressions, including  anger, happiness, fear,  surprise, disgust, and sadness . http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=LHraznv4pHQ 9
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Six “Basic” Emotions Paul Ekman Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 10
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B.   Ekman, Sorenson, and Friesen (1969): Participants: two preliterate tribes of New Guinea Material: emotion expression photographs; stories Task: select the story that best described a facial  expression 11
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C.
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