LS_2_Lec_1_Macrom

LS_2_Lec_1_Macrom - Life Sciences 2 Lecture 1 Molecules...

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1 Life Sciences 2 Lecture 1 Dr. Joseph Esdin Levels of Organization of Life • Biology can be visualized as a hierarchy of units that include molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, populations, communities, and the biosphere • To understand organisms, biologists must study them at all levels of organization, from low to high
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2 Hierarchy of Organization • Fast-acting control system • Responds to internal and external changes Nervous System
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3 Muscular System • Allows manipulation of environment • Locomotion • Facial expression • Maintains posture • Produces heat Endocrine System • Glands secrete hormones that regulate: – Growth – Reproduction – Nutrient use
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4 Cardiovascular System • Blood vessels transport blood – Carries oxygen and carbon dioxide – Also carries nutrients and wastes • Heart pumps blood Lymphatic/Immune System • Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels • Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) • Mounts attack against foreign substances in the body
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5 Respiratory System • Keeps blood supplied with oxygen • Removes carbon dioxide • Gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs Digestive System • Breaks down food into absorbable units • Indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces
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6 Urinary System • Eliminates nitrogenous wastes • Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance Male Reproductive System • Overall function is to produce offspring • Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones
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7 Female Reproductive System • Overall function is to produce offspring • Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones • Mammary glands produce milk The Periodic Table
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8 Atoms: The Constituents of Matter Nucleus Elements are made of atoms Atoms: The Constituents of Matter Chemical symbol
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9 Sodium: Na (Natrium) First shell: Second shell: Third shell: Electrons Chemical Bonds • Covalent • Ionic • Hydrogen • Van der Waals
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10 Covalent Bonds Hydrogen atoms Hydrogen molecule (H 2 ) Electron of each H is attracted to its nucleus Electron is attracted to the nucleus of the other atom Atoms gel close to each other The 2 electrons become shared in a covalent bond Valence shell is complete Properties of Molecules 1 C, 4 H CH 4 Bohr Model Structural formula Space filling Covalent Bonds
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11 Covalent Bonds • Sharing of electrons – Polar covalent bond – Nonpolar covalent bond Properties of Molecules 11 Protons 11 Electrons 17 Protons 17 Electrons Ionic Bonds
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LS_2_Lec_1_Macrom - Life Sciences 2 Lecture 1 Molecules...

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