LS_2_Lec_2_Cell

LS_2_Lec_2_Cell - Life Sciences 2 Cells The Working Units...

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1 Life Sciences 2 Cells: The Working Units of Life Chapter 5 Dr. Joseph Esdin The Basic Unit of Life • Life requires a structural compartment separate from the external environment in which macromolecules can perform unique functions in a relatively constant internal environment • These “living compartments” are cells
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2 Robert Hooke • Hooke’s Law – F = -Kx • Most famous for his study of thin slice of cork under the microscope • The term “cells” Antoni van Leewenhoek • Known as the father of microbiology • Improved the microscope • First to report single celled organisms • Animalcules
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3 Cell Theory • Matthias Schleiden observed plant cell and made the first statement of the cell theory • Theodor Shwann reported the same in animal cells Cell Theory • All organisms are composed of cells • Cells are the fundamental units of life • All cells come from preexisting cells
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4 Multicellular Organisms • Division of labor • Cells must stick together • Cells must communicate with each other Cell Size • Resolution – Minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two points • Unaided eye • Light Microscopy • Electron Microscopy
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5 10 m 1 m 0.1 m 1 cm 1 mm 100 µ m 10 µ m 1 µ m 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm Atoms Small molecules Lipids Proteins Ribosomes Viruses Smallest bacteria Mitochondrion Nucleus Most bacteria Most plant and animal cells Frog egg Chicken egg Length of some nerve and muscle cells Human height Unaided eye Light microscope Electron microscope What Limits Cell Size?
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6 Surface area 4 π r 2 Surface area- to-volume ratio Volume 4/3 π r 3 1 μ m 2 μ m 4 μ m 3.14 μ m 2 6:1 3:1 2:1 12.56 μ m 2 28.26 μ m 2 Spheres 0.52 μ m 3 4.19 μ m 3 14.18 μ m 3 What Limits Cell Size? Fimbriae Nucleoid Ribosomes Plasma membrane Cell wall Capsule Flagella Bacterial chromosome 0.5 µ m No nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, smaller Prokaryotes: Unicellular Organisms
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7 Eukaryotes Membrane bound nucleus, membrane bound organelles, unicellular/multicellular, larger What Functions Are Required to Ensure Cells Survival?
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LS_2_Lec_2_Cell - Life Sciences 2 Cells The Working Units...

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