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Lecture 2 - FST 1 – Main topics – Lecture 02 World Food...

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Unformatted text preview: FST 1 – Main topics – Lecture 02 World Food Problems Millions of people regularly suffer from hunger Most are women and children One child dies every 6 seconds for hunger‐related causes Challenges to feed the world: ‐ Population growth (world population today is over 6.9 billion) ‐ Differences in agricultural output in various regions of the world ‐ Poverty ‐ Cost of food ‐ High food prices ‐ Oil price ↑ transport costs ‐ Use of food crops for biofuel production ‐ Others, such as war, natural disasters Although there is enough food to feed everyone in the world, many people do not have access to it. Food Insecurity: Limited or uncertain availability of food or money to buy food. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) there are 1.02 Billion undernourished people in the world. Food security exists "when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. FAO – UN Undernutrition: Failing health that results from a diet (long duration) that is not enough to meet nutritional needs. Undernutrition is common when food supplies are low and the population is large. It leads to nutritional deficiency diseases. Worldwide about 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient* deficiencies. According to the World Health Organization, deficiencies in iron, iodine, vitamin A and zinc are among the top causes of death from disease in developing countries. Let’s see 2 examples: vitamin A and iodine. * Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals Severe vitamin A deficiency causes blindness. Each year, ~500,000 children are blinded from lack of vitamin A. Vitamin A supplements given a few times a year could prevent it. Iodine deficiency causes goiter. Currently, 2 billion people are at risk for iodine deficiency. In India about 500 million people get too little iodine, 54 million have goiters. Moreover, inadequate intake of iodine during pregnancy may lead to infants that develop mental retardation. Global food production – environmental impact ‐ Depletion of natural resources: arable land, soil degradation, water, loss of biodiversity ‐ Use of chemical fertilizers ‐ Use of fossil fuels ‐ Pollution Now, the other side … abundance Obesity in the U.S. During the past 20 years there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in the United States. This raises concern because of its implications for the health of Americans. Obesity increases the risk of many diseases and health conditions, such as coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Readings 1. Dying of Hunger (pdf file posted on the course web page) 2. Obesity (pdf file posted on the course web page) 3. Micronutrients‐WHO‐2006 (pdf file posted on the course web page) 4. http://www.projecthealthychildren.org/food‐fortification.php 5. http://www.projecthealthychildren.org/micronutrients.php Video How to increase your I.Q. http://video.nytimes.com/video/2008/12/03/opinion/1194834594529/how‐to‐ increase‐your‐i‐q.html ...
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  • Winter '10
  • CharlesF.Shoemaker
  • World population, Web page, PDF file, course web page, Corpus Aristotelicum, world food problems

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