Chapter 5(Light) - Conservation Laws Momentum = mv Energy...

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Conservation Laws Momentum = mv Energy Holy cow, this is a very fine law. Energy comes in many forms. Even when Newton’s Laws fail, conservation of energy holds.
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Types of Energy Kinetic The energy of movement. Potential Gravitational Chemical Nuclear Radiative Light
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An Aside on Temperature Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the particles. Temperature scales Fahrenheit (bad) Celsius (better) Kelvin (best)
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Light
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Light A vibration in an electromagnetic field through which energy is transported. Light as a wave Light as a particle E = h f photon f λ = c
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Light as a Wave For a wave, its speed: s = f λ But the speed of light is a constant, c. For light: f λ = c The higher f is, the smaller λ is, and vice versa. Our eyes recognize f (or λ ) as color !
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Electromagnetic Waves
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Light as a Particle Light can also be treated as photons packets of energy. The energy carried by each photon depends on its frequency (color) E = h f = hc / λ [“h” is called Planck’s Constant] Bluer light carries more energy per photon.
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Matter nucleus electron e - proton neutron p + n
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The “size” of an Atom most of the atom’s mass is contained in the nucleus. The electrons do not “orbit” the nucleus; they are “smeared out” in a cloud which give the atom its size.
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Periodic Table of the Elements atomic number = #protons atomic mass no. = #protons + #neutrons
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Hydrogen e - p + atomic number = 1 atomic mass number = 1
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Helium e - p + n e - n p + atomic number = 2 atomic mass number = 4
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Hydrogen e - p + n Deuterium isotope atomic number = 1 atomic mass number = 2 Different versions of the same atom
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p + n e - n p + atomic number = 2 atomic mass number = 4 What if an electron is missing? ion He +1 -A charged atom, less elections than normal -Behave differently,
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What if two or more atoms combine to form a particle? p + p + 8p + 8n molecule H 2 O (water)
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Phases of Matter the phases solid liquid gas plasma depend on how tightly bound the atoms and/or molecules are As temperature increases, these bonds are loosened:
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Electron Orbits Electrons can gain or lose energy while they orbit the nucleus. When electrons have the lowest energy possible, we say
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Chapter 5(Light) - Conservation Laws Momentum = mv Energy...

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