Chapter 5(Light)

# Chapter 5(Light) - Conservation Laws Momentum = mv Energy...

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Conservation Laws Momentum = mv Energy Holy cow, this is a very fine law. Energy comes in many forms. Even when Newton’s Laws fail, conservation of energy holds.

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Types of Energy Kinetic The energy of movement. Potential Gravitational Chemical Nuclear Radiative Light
An Aside on Temperature Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the particles. Temperature scales Fahrenheit (bad) Celsius (better) Kelvin (best)

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Light
Light A vibration in an electromagnetic field through which energy is transported. Light as a wave Light as a particle E = h f photon f λ = c

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Light as a Wave For a wave, its speed: s = f λ But the speed of light is a constant, c. For light: f λ = c The higher f is, the smaller λ is, and vice versa. Our eyes recognize f (or λ ) as color !
Electromagnetic Waves

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Light as a Particle Light can also be treated as photons packets of energy. The energy carried by each photon depends on its frequency (color) E = h f = hc / λ [“h” is called Planck’s Constant] Bluer light carries more energy per photon.

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Matter nucleus electron e - proton neutron p + n
The “size” of an Atom most of the atom’s mass is contained in the nucleus. The electrons do not “orbit” the nucleus; they are “smeared out” in a cloud which give the atom its size.

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Periodic Table of the Elements atomic number = #protons atomic mass no. = #protons + #neutrons
Hydrogen e - p + atomic number = 1 atomic mass number = 1

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Helium e - p + n e - n p + atomic number = 2 atomic mass number = 4
Hydrogen e - p + n Deuterium isotope atomic number = 1 atomic mass number = 2 Different versions of the same atom

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p + n e - n p + atomic number = 2 atomic mass number = 4 What if an electron is missing? ion He +1 -A charged atom, less elections than normal -Behave differently,
What if two or more atoms combine to form a particle? p + p + 8p + 8n molecule H 2 O (water)

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Phases of Matter the phases solid liquid gas plasma depend on how tightly bound the atoms and/or molecules are As temperature increases, these bonds are loosened:
Electron Orbits Electrons can gain or lose energy while they orbit the nucleus. When electrons have the lowest energy possible, we say

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Chapter 5(Light) - Conservation Laws Momentum = mv Energy...

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