Chapter 4 - Ant 2511 Summer A 08 Chap 4: Heredity and...

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Ant 2511 Summer A 08 Chap 4: Heredity and Evolution 1. Introduction 0. Chapter concerned with 1. 1) How characteristics are passed on 2. 2) Factors contributing to evolutionary change 2. Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel 0. Gregor Mendel 1. Experimenting with garden pea traits 2. Involved observation and experimentation 3. Discovered fundamental principles of how traits inherited 4. (Mendel pea experiments) 5. Calculation of frequencies of traits in hybrids 6. Results were empirical basis for his theories 7. Discovered fundamental principles of how traits transmitted A . Segregation 8. Mendel’s “First principle of inheritance” 9. Principle of segregation 10. Different expression of same trait controlled by discrete “units” 11. We call “genes” 12. Occurred in pairs and the members of the pair separated and then united with another member Experiment continued 13. Crossed tall and short plants (parental or P generation 14. The offspring or” F1” generation were not intermediate in height 15. All were tall 16. No blending of trait 17. F2 generation - 1/4 were short (3:1 ratio) B. Dominance and Recessiveness 18. Mendel recognized that traits not expressed are still present
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19. Recessive - trait seemed lost (masked) 20. Dominant - expressed trait Related terms 21. Gene - segment of DNA 22. Locus - location of gene on chromosome 23. Alleles - variation or alternate forms of genes at same locus 24. Homozygous - two copies of same allele 0. For example “TT” or ‘tt” (all tall or all short) 25. Heterozygous - two different alleles at locus 1. For example “Tt” (tall and short) 26. Genotype - actual genetic makeup 27. Phenotype - observed characteristic Punnet Square 28. Represents different ways alleles combined 29. The possible genotypes and phenotypes 30. Shows phenotypic ratio of 3:1 31. Typical of Mendelian traits 32. Controlled by one genetic locus C. Independent Assortment 33. Mendel’s second principle of inheritance 34. Principle of independent assortment 35. 36.
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This note was uploaded on 08/16/2011 for the course ANT 2511 taught by Professor Sinelli during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chapter 4 - Ant 2511 Summer A 08 Chap 4: Heredity and...

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