Chapter 6-7 - Chap 06 and 07 Ant 2511 Fall 09 Chap 06 Overview of Living Primates Primates 1 Introduction Primates As Mammals 0 A mammalian order 2

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Chap 06 and 07 Ant 2511 Fall 09 Chap 06 Overview of Living Primates Primates 1. Introduction Primates As Mammals 0. A mammalian order 2. Primate Characteristics Characteristics of Primates 1. Not simple to define order by single traits 2. Primates are “generalized” 3. Some maintaining ancestral or “primitive” traits Evolutionary Trends 4. Primates defined by “evolutionary trends” 5. Traits that characterize the entire order Traits 6. Reflecting common evolutionary history See A-D below A) Limbs and Locomotion 7. Tendency towards erect posture. 8. Hands & feet 0. Prehensile or grasping ability. B) Diet and Teeth 9. Eat a wide variety of foods. 10. “Generalized” dentition C) Senses and the Brain 0. “Color vision” characteristic of all “diurnal” primates 1. (active in day). 2. Depth perception or stereoscopic vision 11. Teeth not specialized for one type of food. 3. Eyes positioned forward on the front of the face 4. (providing for binocular vision). 5. Decreased reliance on sense of smell 1
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6. The brain has expanded in size and complexity D) Maturation, Learning, and Behavior 7. Reduced numbers of offspring 8. Delayed maturation 9. Greater dependence on learned behavior. 10. Tend to live in social groups 3. Primate Adaptations (explanations) 3.A Evolutionary Factors Explaining Characteristics 1) Arboreal Hypothesis 12. Adaptation to tree living 13. adapted to climbing 2) Visual Predation Hypothesis 14. Adapted to shrubby forest undergrowth 15. Forward facing eyes for grabbing insects 3) Flower Plants 1. Rise of flowering plants influenced primate evolution 2. Fine vision and tactile discrimination 3. Small fruits, berries, seeds in branches 3.B Geographical Distribution and Habitats. 11. Most in tropical or semitropical areas 3.C Diet and Teeth 16. Primates are generally omnivorous 17. (reflected in their generalized dentition) Dental Formula 18. Incisors, canines, premolar, molars 19. Dental formula gives number of each kind for quarter of mouth 20. Old World Anthropoids have two premolars (Formula 2.1.2.3) 21. New World monkeys have three premolars (Formula 2.1.3.3) Lack of Dietary Specialization 22. Carnivores have premolars and molars with high pointed cusps 23. Herbivores have molars with broad, flat surfaces 24. Most primates have premolars and molars 2
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25. With low rounded cusps to process most types of foods 3.D Locomotion 1)Quadrupedal 12. Most primates “quadrupedal” 13. Use all four limbs(all except humans) 14. Majority are arboreal 15. Some “Terrestial quadrupedalism” 16. Many prosimians and tarisers 17. Cling vertically 18. Spring away from trunk(On Branches) 3) Brachiation 19. Brachiating (arm swinging) 20. Gibbons and siamangs especially 21. Tend to have long arms and curved fingers 4) “Prehensile tails” 26. Grasping tail , Grasp Branches 27. Only among New World monkeys 28. (not in Old World primates) 4 Primate Classification Primate chart Primate Taxonomy 29. In any taxonomy system
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This note was uploaded on 08/16/2011 for the course ANT 2511 taught by Professor Sinelli during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chapter 6-7 - Chap 06 and 07 Ant 2511 Fall 09 Chap 06 Overview of Living Primates Primates 1 Introduction Primates As Mammals 0 A mammalian order 2

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