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Chapter 8 keywords - Ant2511 Key Words Chap08 For exam...

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Ant2511 Key Words Chap08 For exam ignore lines with strikeout HOMINID ORIGINS Early Primate Evolution Geological Time Scale Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic Eras (no details) Epochs of the Cenozoic (no details) Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene Pliocene Pleistocene Holocene Levels Primate Evolution Early Ancestors >Prosimians>Anthropoids>Hominoids>Hominids Paleocene (65-55 mya) Mammal radiation (many species adapting to new environment) Earliest primates diverging Eocene Definite primates N. Am/ Europe fossils Prosimian radiation Oligocene 1
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New World< > Old World Continental drift Anthropoid radiation Fayum, Egypt fossils Apidium Near Old/New World anthropoid split Aegyptopithecus Ancestral Old World Monkeys & Hominoids Miocene Miocene Fossil Hominoids Spectacular radiation Diverse fossils-many species Africa, Asia, Europe (not N. Am) Geographical Groups Africa Procounsul Europe Dryropithecus Asia Sivapithecus (Orangutan ancestor) Conclusion Miocene Hominoids Too derived –to be ancestor to living forms (except Sivapithecus) Hominid Divergence Probably in Late Miocene 2
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Probable Hominid fossils (bipedal) Chap 08 continued Definition of Hominid Distinctive characteristics ( below) Bipedal Large brain Tool making Mosaic Evolution Different rates Physiological and behavior systems Bipedal Locomotion Most distinctive characteristic Indicates if fossil is hominid Bipedal Adaptation Primary only in humans Advantages (of bipedal) Carry objects, tools Wider view Walking long distance Bipedal Modifications Pelvis (short, basin-like) Foramen magnum repositioned Spinal curvature Longer leg 3
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Femur angled in Longitudinal arch Big toe realigned Biocultural Evolution Most distinctive behavior feature Biology makes culture possible Culture influences biological evolution Protohominids (earliest bipeds in general) No regular tools at first Later Hominds Later elaborate tools and social relationships Greater intelligence selected Chap 08 continued PALEOANTHROPOLOGY Study early humans Multidisciplinary science (geology,paleontologists, physical anthropologists, archaeologists) Sites (locations where evidence found such as below) Faunal remains (animal bones) Artifacts (man made) Dating Methods Two major types Relative and Chronometric 4
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1) Relative Major category Object older or younger than other Stratigraphy
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