Chapters 10-11 - PRELIMINARY NOTES FOR FALL O9 LONG VERSION...

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PRELIMINARY NOTES FOR FALL O9 LONG VERSION Chapter 10 Part 1 Premodern Humans Chap10 Premodern Human Introduction** H. erectus (last chapter) was new grade of human evolution Hominids that follow are much more like modern humans But still significantly different These immediate predecessors are referred to as “premodern humans” “Premodern humans” Hominids following Homo erectus Before anatomically modern human Includes “Homo heidelbergensis” discussed in this chapter When, Where and What** When? The Pleistocene* The Pleistocene, often called the Ice Age, was marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations. At least 15 major and 50 minor glacial advances have been documented in Europe. Hominids were impacted as the climate, flora, and animal life shifted. Middle and Late Most premodern hominids in this chapter lived in the Middle Pleistocene (780,000– 25,000 y.a.) Some later premodern, especially the Neandertals lived well into the Upper Pleistocene (125,000–10,000 y.a.) Hominids Affected by Ice Age Glaciations Climatic intervals when ice sheets covered much of the northern continents Northern areas of Europe and Asia became uninhabitable 1
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Integlacials Intervals when continental ice sheets retreating and becoming smaller Certain migration routes reopened Changing Pleistocene Environments in Africa Changing Pleistocene Environments in Eurasia Green areas show regions of likely hominid occupation. Blue areas are major glaciers. Arrows indicate likely migration routes. Where? Dispersal of Middle Pleistocene Hominids* (where) Middle Pleistocene hominids dispersed throughout Old World Often in areas where Homo erectus had lived Europe for the first time became more permanently and densely occupied What? Middle Pleistocene Hominds:Terminology* Premoderns and Homo erectus Premoderns generally succeeded Homo erectus Except coexisted for long periods in Asia Characteristics (what) Earliest premoderns Retain some Homo erectus characteristics Modern features (compared to H. erectus) include: Larger brain Rounded brain case (maximum breath higher – not wider at base) Differences Certain trends over time Include brain expansion Less angled back of skull (occipital) Diverse group over three continents Disagreement on how to classify Homo heidelbergensis Now more consensus about “H. heidelbergensis” 2
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Fossils from Africa and Europe From about 850,000 to 200,000 y.a. Placed within Homo heidelbergensis Archaic Homo sapiens Premoderns were recently considered an early, primitive, transitional “Homo sapiens” and called “Archaic Homo sapiens” (now most are called Homo heidelbergensis) (a different species from later Homos sapiens) Homo heidelbergensis continued Homo heidelbergensis Transitional Probable ancestor to both modern humans and Neandertals
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Chapters 10-11 - PRELIMINARY NOTES FOR FALL O9 LONG VERSION...

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