Exam 3 Review - Review for Exam 3 Fall 09 (chaps 8 and 9)...

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Review for Exam 3 Fall 09 (chaps 8 and 9) Ant 2511 Fall 09 Chap08 HOMINID ORIGINS Early Primate Evolution Perspective Primate Evolution 0. In context of : 1. Geological Time Periods 2. Starting around 65 million years ago 3. Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene 4. Levels of Primate Evolution 5. Early primate ancestors (not well defined prosiminans) followed by: 6. 1) Prosimians 2)Anthropoids 3) Hominods 7. 4) Hominids EARLY PRIMATE EVOLUTION 0. Roots of primate order 1. Starts with beginning of placental mammal radiation Paleocene (65-55 m.y.a) 2. Earliest primates diverging 3. Generalized and therefore hard to classify Eocene (55-34 mya) 0. Earliest definite primates appear 1. Fossils found in North America and Europe 0. Continents connected (until Oligocene) Eocene Prosimians 0. Prosimian radiation in Eocene 8. Some are ancestors of prosimians 9. Such as lemurs and lorises Oligocene (image) New World 1
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10. By early Oligocene continental drift separated the New World (the Americas) from Old World 11. Suggested that first anthropoids arose in Africa and reach South America by “rafting” Oligocene (34 – 23 mya) Anthropoids 1. Early Anthropoid radiation in Oligocene 2. Fossils several species 3. (monkeys) Fayum 4. Most Oligocene anthropoid fossils from Fayum, Egypt 5. Including Apidium and Aegyptopithecus 6. Illustrate roots of anthropoid evolution Apidium 12. Small primate 13. Squirrel-sized arboreal quadruped Aegyptopithecus 7. Largest of the Fayum primates 8. Ancestor to Old World monkeys and hominoids. Miocene (23-5 m.y.a) 14. Spectacular hominoid radiation in Miocene 15. (apes) 16. Diverse Miocene hominoid fossils found in Africa, Asia, Europe 17. “the golden age of hominoids 18. None in New World (Americas) Miocene climate and geology 19. Miocene warmer 20. Arabian plate “docked” with Africa 21. Hominoids migrate from Africa to Asia, late Europe Miocene Hominoids 22. Diverse 23. Hominoids are grouped geographically African forms (23-14 m.y.a) 24. These hominoids are generalized and primitive 2
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Proconsul is best known genus of Early Miocene Hominoid in Africa European forms (13-11 m.y.a) 26. Scattered locations 27. Most are quite derived 28. Dryopithecus is best known Asian forms (17-7 m.y.a) 29. Largest group Miocene fossil hominoids 30. Sivapithecus is best known genus 31. (Turkey and Pakistan) Taxonomy 32. The terms Proconsul, Dryopithecus, and Sivapithecus 33. Refer to “genus” level General Points on Miocene Hominoids 4. Fossils widespread and numerous Conclusions on Miocene Hominoids 5. Most are “large-bodied hominoids” 6. (like “Great Apes”) 34. Most too “derived” to be ancestors to living forms 35. Except Sivapithecus may link to orangutan Late Miocene Hominid Divergence 36. Initial divergence of “hominids” from African “hominoids” 37. Most likely late Miocene 38. Hominids (family Hominidae) are bipedal II. Hominid Origins Introduction 39. First definite Hominid fossils found in Africa 40. Numerous
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Exam 3 Review - Review for Exam 3 Fall 09 (chaps 8 and 9)...

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