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Lab 4: Linear Momentum Experiments
Purpose:
The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate the momentum theorem, with the scope of this lab
being restricted to linear momentum concepts. The lab will consist of two parts, one with water
and the other with air as the flowing medium. The relevant theory is covered in your textbook by
the linear momentum equation, Eq. 5.22, and Section 5.2.2,
Application of the Linear Momentum
Equation
.
Objectives:
Upon completion of this lab, the student should be able to 1) understand the basic concepts of
linear momentum, 2) have a greater understanding of Bernoulli’s equation, and 3) compare
experimental and theoretical results of the forces acting on the systems analyzed in lab.
Background:
Figure 1 shows a diagram of the apparatus that will be used to study a linear momentum
application using water as the flowing medium. The pump delivers water to a nozzle flow meter
that creates a jet that impinges on the moveable plate assembly shown.
Fig. 1: Apparatus for Linear Momentum Experiments with Water as the Fluid.
The pump intakes the water from the tank and pushes the fluid past the flow control valve and the
nozzle flow meter. The flow of water through the system is controlled by the flowcontrol valve and
the speed of the variablespeed motor. This jet of water impacts the impingement plate and is
diverted outward to the plexiglass enclosure. With the proper water flow rate, the impingement of the
water jet on the plate will cause the assembly consisting of impingement plate, platform plate, and
the weights to "float" on the water jet. This water then returns to the holding tank where it continues
the cycle. As described below, the flow rate through the system can be calculated from static pressure
readings for the flow meter and knowledge of the flow meter type and geometry.
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Deriving the Volumetric Flow Rate from Bernoulli’s Equation:
Data acquisition will be used to find the velocity and volumetric flow rate of the water.
The
experimental calculations will be compared with the theoretical results using the linear momentum
equation. Figure 2 shows the nozzle flow meter and the computeraided pressure measurement
system. Because of the elevation difference between sections (1) and (2), it is important to examine
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 Spring '11
 Olsen
 Fluid Dynamics, Nozzle Flow Meter, Linear Momentum Experiments

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