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lin204h-m10-1 - NAME(PRINT LasIlSumame Firs[Given Name...

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Unformatted text preview: NAME (PRINT): LasIlSumame Firs! [Given Name STUDENT #: SIGNATURE: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MISSISSAUGA APRIL 2010 FINAL EXAMINATION LIN204H5$ English Grammar Mary MacKeracher Duration - 3 hours Aids: None The University of Toronto Mississauga and you, as a student, share a commitment to academic integrity. You are reminded that you may be charged with an academic offence for possessing any unauthorized aids during the writing of an exam, including but not limited to any electronic devices with storage, such as cell phones, pagers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), iPods, and MP3 players. Unauthorized calculators and notes are also not permitted. Do not have any of these items in your possession in the area of your desk. Please turn the electronics off and put all unauthorized aids with your belongings at the front of the room before the examination begins. If any of these items are kept with you during the writing of your exam, you may be charged with an academic offence. A typical penalty may cause you to fail the course. Please note, you CANNOT petition to RE-WRlTE an examination once you have begun writing. Continued on page 9’ LIN204HSS Page 2 of 12 (4 total) Section A — Introductory Material: True & False (5 total) For each of the following statements, state whether it is completely true. If the statement is not completely true, then it is false. 1. El true Cl false By definition, a non—standard language variety has ungrarnmatical grammar rules. 3. l3 true Ci false Our linguistic competence refers to what we actually say or write, and what we interpret from others’ speech and writing. 4. Cl true [3 false Hypercorrected language belongs to a standard language variety. 5. El true Ci false In a given context, there will always be an equal or greater ' number of word—forms than grammatical words. 6. C] true [:1 false Determiners and conjunctions are examples of functional word classes. 7. El true El false A derivational affix is a morpheme which adds grammatical information to the root, like past tense. 8. El true Ci false The word broken has a verb function in the sentence Sam has broken the oldjar, while it has a nominal function in the sentence Sam ’5 broken jar was old. Section B — Constituency Consider the following: We found the long-term efiects of these new policies quite significant. Determine whether the portion the long-term efi‘ects is a constituent of the sentence using two different tests. You should: (i) name each test used; (ii) give a corresponding constituency test sentence for each test; and (iii) mark your conclusion. Test 1: Your constituency test sentence: Test 2: Your constituency test sentence: Your conclusion from Test 1: Cl yes, this portion is a constituent CI no, this portion is not a constituent Your conclusion from Test 2: ' El yes, this portion is a constituent Ci no, this portion is not a constituent Continued on page 3 LIN204HSS Page 3 of 12 (14 total) Section C — The word and Iexical category (8) (6) Consider the following context passage: After Joey and I had fished the river, we sailed to the lake. As we went north, it became much narrower. I saw fishermen all around, and Joey said that the narrows were obviously a great spot for m. We M for a while, and at 4 o’clock, we went home with our dinner. I will fish there again. 1. This first question concerns the definition of a word. l.a. Answer: _ Give the number of different lexemes associated with the 4 underlined items. 11). List these different lexemes associated with the 4 underlined items. l.c. Answer: Give the number of different grammatical words associated with the 4 underlined items. 1.d. List these grammatical words associated with the 4 underlined items. 2. Identify the lexical category of each of the 2 italicized items and give 2 pieces of evidence to prove each claim: 2.3. narrower Lexical category: Evidence: 2.b. narrows Lexical category: Evidence: L1N204Hss Page 4 of 12 (8 total) Section D — Nominals Identify the nominals and their syntactic functions in the follow context paragraph. Be specific when listing the syntactic function — for instance, do not write merely “object”, but instead specify what type of “object”. The very last nominal has been done for you. The woman sitting beside the maple tree began to eat. She considered the chipmunks funny little creatures and gave them, the ones over there, some food. Nominal Nominal function some food direct object (10 total) Section E — Verbs (I) 1. What is the syntactic function of a verb phrase? (I) 2. Give the past tense of the verb wade and explain how it was created from the base form. (4) 3. Name the verb tenses in the following sentences. Be sure to include the voice. By noon, he had gone home. The pizza is being eaten now. I will consider him a possible candidate. (4) 4. Name the verb complementation or transitivity pattern in the following sentences. Be specific. Later on he became an engineer. I gave some food to the chipmunks. I will consider him a possible candidate. The army general surrendered unconditionally. Continued on page S (8 total) (2) (3) (3) (4 total) LIN204HSS Page 5 of 12 Section F -— Adjectives & Adverbs 1. What are the two differences between determiners and adjectives? 2. Box the and underline the adjectives in the following sentence. My elderly aunt recently became quite ill, but she is well now. 3. For each of the following sentences, bracket [the complete adverbial form], and then give the adverbial form’s syntactic function in the blank space in front of the sentence. a. Unknown to her, Mavis won first prize. b. The politician spoke for five minutes. 0. About half the members left. Section G — Structural Ambiguity Explain why the following sentence is structurally ambiguous: The parents ofthe bride and the groom are the only people in the reception hall. To do this, for each of the two different meanings, (i) bracket [the constituents] conjoined on the printed sentences, and then (ii) give an unambiguous paraphrase of each meaning, identifying exactly who is present. (Assume that the bride’s parents are her mother and her father, and that they are different people from the groom’s parents, his mother and his father.) Meaning 1: (i) Bracketing: The parents of the bride and the groom are the only people in the reception hall. (ii) Unambiguous paraphrase: Meaning 2: i) Bracketing: The parents of the bride and the groom are the only people in the reception hall. (ii) Unambiguous paraphrase: Continued on page (/2 LIN204HSS Page 6 of 12 (13 total) Section H —~ Other classes of words Consider the foilowing grammatical context data, spoken in separate and independent conversations. (1) Danny, what did Alice just see between her house and yours? (m) Can anybody pick up all of those five items at the same time? (4) 1. List the pronoun(s) in the above context data. For each pronoun, give its type (e.g., relative pronoun). For any indefinite pronoun, further classify it into one of the two major subtypes. (2) 2. Identify the antecedents of the following in the above context data. yours all (3) 3. Identify the word class of the following in the above context data. just at five (2) 4. What inflectional and semantic information is encoded into the word those? (2) 5. Sentence (m), with no change in meaning, could also be written as: (11) Can anybody pick all of those five items up at the same time? What can you conclude from Sentences (m) and (11) about the word up and the expression pick up? Continued on page i LIN204HSS Page 7 of 12 (14 total) Section I - Grammatical terms For each of the following grammatical English sentences, determine if the underlined item is an example of the term given just before the sentence. Then give evidence for your decision from the actual context. (Be careful to examine the item in its current context, and do not think about what it might be in other ones.) (a) Cl yes Ci no Evidence: (b) Cl yes C! no Evidence: (c) El yes Elno Evidence: (d) Cl yes Ci no Evidence: - (e) Cl yes El no Evidence: (f) l3 yes Cl no Evidence: (g) Cl yes Ci no Evidence: non-count HOUR helping verb gradable adjective adverb in absolute form determiner preposition complementizer We have much sympathy for his grief. Is Dad doing his income tax return? We think his plan is somewhat workable. Margo talks less guickiy than Gillian. This is my son. Sam must straighten everything o_ut quickly. Anybody who left early was foolish. Continued on page 3 LIN204HSS Page 8 of i2 (12 total) Section J — Grammaticaljty Explain why the following are ungrammatical in contemporary Standard English. To do this, identify the word or words that caused the ungrammaticality, identify its (or their) word class(es) and any other pertinent grammatical detail, and explain what grammar point was violated. Please note that in each case, there is only ONE reason for the ungrammaticality. It is not necessary to provide a corrected version of any item, and in fact, a corrected version without explanation will not be awarded any points. a. * The robber appeared a gun from his pocket. b. * For her last roie, the film actress wore a pair of red pretty siippers. c. * Andy ran the faster in the foot race. d. * I cannot talk my problems about very easily. 6. * Are who the people next door? f. * Everybody goes to the nearest exit! Continued on page i LIN204HSS Page 9 0f 12 (12 total) Section K —- Clause types Consider the following four grammatical clauses, all of which are not punctuated. (a) How deep this lake is (b) How deep is this lake (0) Dave gave Sheila candy (d) Do you want the red jellyheans the purple ones or the green ones (4) 1. For Clauses (at, (b1, and to) only, identify the clause type, the most common discourse function for this clause type, and the most likely intonation pattern for the particular clause listed above. Do not fill in the cell for the likely intonation pattern for Clause (0). Clause type Most common discourse function for this Most likely intonation pattern for this particular clause XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (3) 2. Give three reasons for your “Clause type” answer for Clause la} in Question 1, apart from the intonation pattern. (1) 3. Change Clause to) so that, in formal Standard English, it becomes an inverted wh—question questioning (that is, replacing) Clause {cl’s indirect object. (l) 4. Change Clause (c1 so that it has an added tag question using the usual rules for tag question creation. (3) 5. Identify the name of, and then explain in words, the appropriate intonation pattern for Clause (d1 if an appropriate response is “I want the red ones” and an inappropriate response is “Yes”. Continued on page '0 LINZO4HSS Page 10 of 12 (12 total) Section L — Alternations (6) (3) (3) 1. Identify the alternations used in the following context data. Be specific as possible. Alternation(s) used _ In. Mississauga, there are many restaurants ofiering Thai food. The car just got packed with all the luggage. 2. Explain why the following canonical-alternation sentences cannot appear in the specified alternation. 2.a. You became a famous politician. This sentence cannot appear in the passive alternation because 2.b. Margaret cooked the turkey to 5 o’clock. This sentence cannot appear in the dative alternation because 2.0. The manager gave him a raise. This sentence cannot appear in the postposing alternation because 3. Consider the following canonical—alternation sentence: (j) To meet for the first time was very stressful. 3a. Change Sentence (j) into the following alternations. Consider each part separately (i) subject extraposition (ii) it—cleft 31). What does the it—cleft alternation achieve that the subject extraposition alternation is less likely to achieve? Continued on page L LIN204HSS Page 11 of 12 (10 total) Section M — (Io-ordination Consider the following context passage: {1) After Joey and I had fished the river, we sailed to the lake. (2) As we went north, it became much narrower. (3) I saw fishermen all around, and Joey said that the narrows were obviously a great spot for fish. (4) We fished for a while, and at 4 o’clock, we went home with our dinner. (5) I will fish there again. (5) 1. Identify the type of sentence for each of the five sentences in the context paragraph. Type of Sentence -— -— _— —— _— (1) 2a. Which sentence shows a form of ellipsis? Answer: Sentence # (I) 2.b. Which type of ellipsis is it? Answer: 3. Consider these different versions of Sentence #5 above. Let’s call them Sentence #Si) and Sentence #50: (519) Next time, I wiiifish the narrows, but Joey wilifish the river. (5c) I will sail the narrows again and I will fish the narrows again. (1) 3.21. From which sentence, Sentence #513 or Sentence #50, would it be easier to construct a gapped alternation? Answer: Sentence # (I) 3 .b. Write down the sentence with this gapped alternation. (l) 4. Here are two sentences that might precede the first sentence of the passage. Joey fished in the river for three hours. I did this too. Write down ONE sentence that uses a correlative conjunction and that expresses the same ideas as these two sentences do. Continued on page i1 LIN204HSS Page 12 of 12 (10 total) Section N — Subordination (4) (4) (0.5) 1. Identify the subordinate clauses in the following context sentence by REWRITING EACH OF THEM IN FULL. (Please note: if you merely circle or underline or bracket the clauses in the context and do not rewrite them in full, no points will be awarded.) Having been through all this difi‘ieaity, I might have learned to be patient by now. A man I know says that he meditates through any crisis. 2. For each underlined subordinate clause, identify the main syntactic function (nominal, adjectival , or adverbial) and its verb finiteness (finite or non—finite). If the subordinate clause’s verb is finite, also identify its verb mood (indicative, imperative, or subjunctive). (a) I met the fellow standing next in line. (b) I would have gone it he were here betore you. (c) I don ’tknow where he was yesterday - Syntactic function Verb finiteness Verb mood (if finite) 3a. Construct the following sentence as per the instructions given: change the second sentence so that it becomes a non-restrictive relative clause inside the first sentence. The resultant sentence should belong to Standard English. The inventor was from Norway. The patent was given to the inventor. 3b. Is the information in a non—restrictive relative clause necessary to pick out the referent in matrix clause, yes or no? Answer: End of Examination Total Marks = (136) Total Pages = (12) ...
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